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38 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back

The Manchu/Qing Dynasty: Socio-Economic issues

Exploitation of peasants by elite, high taxes, starvation.

Population growth: need more resources, famine.

Rapid urbanization: poorly managed cities and high unemployment.

Manchu/Qing Continued: Political Factors

Weakness due to imperialism, spheres of influence and western domination.

Social battle: Chinese culture vs westernization. Taiping rebellion, Self-Strengthening Movement, Boxer Rebellion. China is factionized.

Long Term Causes: Fall of Manchu Dynasty

People want a new government when the old Empress dies and the 2 year old Emperor ascends. Reforms are not made, and the Manchus lose control of the military and are overthrown.

Sun Yixian and Yuan Shikai

1912. Sun makes a deal with Yuan for Yuan to lead according to the 3 principles. Yuan becomes a dictator, Sun starts Guomindang. Yuan abolishes regional assemblies, controls tax revenue. Makes himself emperor of China, loses support of military and dies.

Sun Yixian's 3 Principles

1. Nationalism (people's livelihood). 2. Democracy (people's civil rights). 3. Socialism (social welfare, foundation of GMD and CCP).

Short Term Causes of Chinese Civil War

Warlord era, 1st United Front, White Terror=Birth of GMD and CCP.

May 4th Movement: youths rebel against traditional China.

Immediate Cause of Chinese Civil War

GMD attacks CCP breaking the 1st United Front, beginning CCW.

Meanwhile Japan attacks Manchuria, Jiang is more concerned with CCP hiding in mountains than Japan on mainland China.

Internal causes of Mao's rise

1. 'Dismemberment of China' by external forces.

2. Ruling elite exploiting the poor.

3. Regionalism means lack of unity, leads to Warlord Period

External causes of Mao's rise

1. Western Imperialism: Open Door Policy, 21 Japanese demands, Shantung, Paris Peace Conference

2. Japanese Expansionism: Manchurian crisis, Russo-Japanese war, annexation of Korea and Shantung.

3. Contact with Russian Comintern, fundamentals of communism introduced

Overall summation of WHY MAO UP IN DIS BITCH

Lack of consistency in Chinese Government and lots of political changes in a short period of time

1st United Front

CCP and GMD work together 1924-27 to eradicate warlords. Jiang works with comintern, Mao's communism conflicts.

Jiang removes communists from power in GMD, moves away from comintern at Shanghai.

White Terror

GMD attacks and annihilates CCP. Purification movement: GMD leaders shoot 250 thousand communists.

Communists flee to Jiangxi Soviet in 1927.

Jiangxi Soviet: 1927-1934

Mao and CCP hide in mountains, begin 'Revolutionary War' tactics. Divisions in CCP: Mao eradicates Russian influence. Mao believes the peasants have to start the revolution as guerrillas, Bolsheviks believe it already started in the middle class.

Encirclement campaigns

Jiang traps the CCP. First 3 fail due to guerrillas fighting effectively, but fourth succeeds when communists revert to traditional fighting. This begins the Long March. (The fifth fails too but by then the LM started)

The Rise of Mao

Establishes himself as leader of Communist Party after 28 Bolsheviks kicked out.

Mao's beliefs: Role of the peasants is key, the revolution comes from them.

Mao's Revolutionary War

1. establish base camps

2. organize, indoctrinate, spread to more bases

3. train peasants, defend with hit and run

4. guerrilla phase: survive and retreat to setup more camps

5. protracted war: gain numbers and tilt favor to CCP

6. seize power with guerrillas

Long March

370-ish days of marching thousands of miles. Solidified Mao's position as leader. 90,000 started, 7,000 finished.

Disputes: Xiang River, Zunyi conf. Luding Bridge, Yangtze River, Songpan Marshes.

2nd Phase of CCW: 1946-1949

Last phase of guerrilla warfare, more effective at fighting Japanese. Steps 5 and 6 of Mao's warfare, lower numbers of troops but successful.

Part A of Second Phase: Initial GMD Victories in Manchuria

GMD: 4 mil CCP: 1 mil. GMD has US support, CCP has little help. CCP fights conventionally, has little success. USSR tries to help CCP unsuccessfully.

GMD mistakes: corruption in leaders, bad gov't option. bad taxation, US looks like puppetmasters, people don't trust them.

Part B of Second Phase: CCP on the Offensive

CCP leaves Manchuria, uses guerrilla tactics again. Cease-fires: US negotiates w/ GMD and CCP uses time to reorganize. Red Army becomes People's Liberation Army, gains popularity. GMD and CCP are on more even footing.

Part C of Second Phase: Collapse of the GMD

Xizhou is decisive battle, Jiang humiliated. Northern China under communist rule, takes Nanjing, Beijing, Shanghai

PRC declared on Oct 1, 1949.

Mao's Domestic Policies

Marriage reform (divorce, no arranged marriage), footbinding, prostitution, female infanticide disallowed. Women can own land.

Agrarian reform: collectivization of agriculture, landlord struggling, Mutual Aid Teams, Mao's opposition destroyed by peasants.

Structure of Mao's Government: Democratic Centralism

Organic law (1949): Central People's Gov Council (Chairman Mao and 6 others, State Administrative Councils). PLAs sent to rural areas to maintain control and unify China.

Constitution (1954): National People's Congress (Mao and 1 other, Central Committee has 5 others)

CPC still structured similarly to USSR, Constitution removes Secretariat and Central Committee leaving just Politburo.

The 3 and 5 Antis Movements

Rectification Campaigns against groups: Sanfen (3 Antis) against party members, officials, business owners.

Wufan (5 Antis) against contract cheating, stealing state info, tax evasion, theft, bribery.

Businesses categorized according to amount of laws they break.

Intellectual Reform

Intellectuals/educated people (journalists, teachers, lawyers, artists, doctors) targeted for having outside knowledge and not being peasants. They were 'struggled against' by laboring, having to 'relearn' communist ideology.

Mao creates registry of family details of all citizens to determine who got residence and work permits.

First Five Year Plan

Goal: industrialize as quickly as possible. High-interest loans to USSR, private businesses nationalized.

Mutual aid teams: peasants trade labor and tools, work together on land. Harvests are not good, low productivity.

Class divisions appear within peasant class.

Phase 2 of 5YP

Mutual aid teams merged into cooperatives, pooling land as well as tools. Wealthier peasants are forced into cooperatives by withholding of loans, families receive back proportional amounts to their contributions.

Phase 3 of 5YP

Soviet style collective farms with no private ownership of land. By 1958, 700,000 large cooperative farms contain up to 300 families each.

Hundred Flowers Campaign and Anti-Rightist Movement

Mao encourages debate in art, literature, science, allows criticism and freedom of expression to find out from the people how to improve.

Thousands of articles criticizing CPC, Mao is shocked, ends HFC within a month.

Anti-Rightist: struggle meetings identify intellectuals/party members as 'rightists', sent to labor camps, executed, or commit suicide.

Great Leap Forward, 1958-1962

Mao advocates massive increase in steel production, larger communes increasing industrial productivity. 5,000 household communes function like small towns.

Backyard steel furnaces set up, cannot produce high quality industrial steel. Government announces doubling of steel output.

Issues with the Great Leap Forward

China lacks efficient infrastructure to develop industry at necessary rate. Shortages of some items, oversupply of others. Disregard for tradition, ownership, family makes workers disaffected, peasants taken from agriculture to factories, causing food shortages.

Agriculture is DYING

China delves into early genetic engineering, trying to make 'super-crops', agricultural innovation to produce higher yields exhausts the land.

Meanwhile peasants report inflated figures to officials who inflate those figures to the government who raise quotas because everything seems to be going SO WELL.

All this grain is shipped to USSR or NK, Chinese are hungry.

Between the GLF and the Cultural Revolution

Sino-Soviet Split: China is cut off from allies and world.

Mao steps down as leader of state, consolidates control of army. Publishes Little Red Book, PLA shifts to left.

Jiang Qing: Mao's wife, helps launch Cultural Revolution.

Cultural Revolution

1966: Students at Beijing University rebel against administration, education system. Mao supports studnts, promises changes. Students ordered to 'attack the four olds'.

'Red Guards' formed as vanguard of Cultural Revolution, rid China of bourgeois practices.

Cult of Mao in the CR

Students damage churches, libraries, museums, temples, schools at behest of Mao and socialist reform.

Mao loses control in 1967, Red Guard splits into groups and fights itself. PLA told to restore order with lethal force if necessary. Shanghai government overthrown, foreign embassies attacked.

PLA continues the CR

PLA persecutes 'counter-revolutionaries' under Lin Biao (Mao's right hand) and Jiang Qing. Almost as many people killed in this phase as the Red Guard phase. Lasts until 1976, when Mao dies.

Aftermath of Cultural Revolution

Socialist revolution stabilized, cult of personality controlled by Young Communist League to control the youth. Lin Biao attempts a coup on Mao, fails and flees. Chinese people start losing faith in CPC. Mao names Hua Guofeng his successor and then died.


Mao created his society by gaining popular support for his policies while shutting down his opposition, like landlords and private enterprise and ownership.