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8 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back

5 stages of organizational decline

-blinded: key managers fail to recognize the internal or external changes that will harm their organization

-inaction stage: organizational performance problems become more visible, management may recognize the need to change but take no action

-faulty action stage: managers are facing rising costs and smaller profits, management will do "belt tightening" designed to cut costs, increase efficiency, and restore profits

-crisis stage: bankruptcy or dissolution is likely to occur unless the company completely reorganizes the way it does business

-dissolution stage: the company is dissolved through bankruptcy

Lewin's force field analysis

* powerpoint slide

-Change Forces: forces that produce differences in the form, quality, or condition of an organization over time

-Resistance Forces: forces that support the existing conditions in organizations

(essentially, all it is, is to adapt to the "resistance forces" and add the proper change to counter act them)

Reasons for Resistance to Change

-parochial self-interest (if change will "cost me" then I will resist the change)

-Lack of understanding and trust

-Differing assessment of the outcome

-Low tolerance for change

Methods (tactics) for overcoming resistance to change

1. Communication, Education: change is technical, and users need accurate information and analysis to understand change.

2. Participation: users need to feel involved, design requires information from others, users have power to resist

3. Negotiation: group has power over implementation, group will lose out in the change if they have nothing to offer

4. Coercion: a crisis exists, initiators clearly have the power, other implementation techniques have failed

5. Top Management Support: change involves multiple departments or reallocation of resources, users doubt legitimacy or change

Lewin's 3-step change process

1. Unfreezing: recognizing a need for change (share reasons, empathize, communicate)

2. Change Intervention: modifying old ways and introducing new behaviors (benefits, champion, input, timing, security, training, pace)

3. Refreezing: making new behaviors permanent (top management support, reinforcement)

What to Change

1. Product

2. Structure

3. Technology

4. People

-change the "mentality" of your people

-thus changing your "organizational culture"

Organizational Development (OD)

-OD= a philosophy and collection of planned change interventions

-OD= is designed to improve an organization's long-term health and performance

-Change Agent=the person formally charged with guiding a change effort, and can be an internal or external power

Re-Engineering (the process and when to use it)

-Develop goals and a strategy for reengineering effort

-Emphasize top management's commitment to the reengineering effort

-Create a sense of urgency among members of the organization

-Start with a clean slate; in effect, recreate the organization

-Optimize top-down and bottom-up perspectives