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123 Cards in this Set

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setting the direction for the firm
inspiring people to attain the vision, keep people focused on moving the organization toward its ideal future, motivating people to overcome any obstacles
deal with ongoing day-to-day complexities, requires planning and budgeting routines, requires structuring the organization, staffing it with capable people, and monitoring activities
Supervisory Leadership
provides guidance, support and corrective feedback for day-to-day activities
Strategic Leadership
gives purpose and meaning to organizations by anticipating and envisioning a viable future for the organization and working with others to initiate changes that create such a future
What are the five sources of power?
Legitimate power, Reward power, Coercive power, Referent power, Expert power
Legitimate power
right or authority to tell others what to do
Reward power
influences others because of control over rewards
Referent power
personal characteristics that appeal to others
Expert power
expertise or knowledge that others believe that can learn from or gain from
What are the three tradtional approaches to leadership?
Trait approach, Behavioral approach, Situational approach
Trait approach
focuses on individual leaders and tries to determine the personal characteristics that great leaders share
Behavioral approach
attempts to identify what good leaders do (i.e., what behaviors they exhibit)
Situational approach
proposes that universally important traits and behaviors do not exist, and that effective leadership behavior varies from situation to situation
What are the five important traits for leaders?
Drive, Leadership motivation, Integrity, Self-confidence, Knowledge of the business
characteristics that reflect a high level of effort, including high need for achievement, constant striving for improvement, ambition, energy, tenacity, and initiative.
Leadership motivation
extraverted, high need for power.
Correspondence between actions and words, honesty, and credibility
ability to overcome obstacles, make decisions despite uncertainty, and instill confidence in others
Knowledge of the business
high level of knowledge about their industries, companies, and technical matters, intelligence to interpret vast quantities of information, and acquired expertise in matters relevant to the organization
Task performance behaviors
actions taken to ensure that the work group or organization reaches its goals. Concern for production, directive leadership, initiating structure or closeness of supervision
Group maintenance behaviors
actions taken to ensure the satisfaction of group members. Concern for people, supportive leadership, or consideration
What are the three decision styles?
Autocratic leadership, Democratick leadersip, and Laissez-faire
Autocratic leadership
a form of leadership in which the leader makes decisions on his or her own and then announces those decisions to the group
Democratic leadership
a form of leadership in which the leader solicits input subordinates
leader essentially made no decisions, led to more negative attitudes and lower performance.
Vroom’s Model
Emphasizes the participative dimension of leadership
Vroom’s Five Leader Decision Styles
Decide, consult individually, consult the group
Decide (Vroom's Model)
You make the decision alone and either announce or sell it to the group.
Consult individually (Vroom's Model)
You present the problem to the group members individually, get their suggestions, and then make the decision.
Consult the group (Vroom's Model)
You present the problem to the group members in a meeting, get their suggestions, and then make the decision.
You present the problem to the group in a meeting and you act as a facilitator to get ideas.
You permit the group to make the decision within prescribed limits
Fiedler’s Contingency Model
Effectiveness depends on two factors: the personal style of the leader and the degree to which the situation gives the leader power, control, and influence over the situation.
Questions used to analyze the situation in Fiedler’s Contingency Model
1. Are leader-member relations good or poor?
2. Is the task structure or unstructured?
3. Is the leader’s position power strong or weak?
Path-goal Theory
A theory that concerns how leaders influence subordinates’ perceptions of their work goals and the paths they follow toward attainment of those goals
What are the two personal situational factors of the Path-Goal theory?
Personal characteristics of followers
Environmental pressures and demand with which followers must cope to attain their work goals
Four Pertinent Leadership Behaviors in Path-Goal theory
Directive Leadership, Supportive Leadership, Participative Leadership, Achievement-oriented Leadership
Directive Leadership
a form of task performance-oriented behavior
Supportive Leadership
a form of group maintenance-oriented behavior
Participative Leadership
decision style
Achievement-oriented Leadership
behaviors geared toward motivating people
Three Key Follower Characteristics in the Path-Goal Theory
Authoritarianism, Locus of Control, and Ability
degree to which individuals respect, admire, or defer to authority. People high on this characteristic would prefer a DIRECTIVE leadership style
Locus of control
extent to which individuals see the environment as responsive to their own behavior. People high on this would prefer a PARTICIPATIVE style of leadership
Ability (Path-Goal Theory)
people’s beliefs about their own abilities to do their assigned jobs. People high on this would prefer an ACHIEVEMENT ORIENTED leadership style
Three Important Environmental Factors in the Path-Goal Theory
Are the tasks structured? Do employees know what they are clearly supposed to do? If so, a directive style may not be good/necessary, Is there a formal authority system that is followed? If yes, a directive style might be expected by the subordinates, Is the employee’s primary work group supportive? If yes, the leader may not exhibit supportive leadership style necessarily.
Functions of the leader in the Path-Goal Theory
Make the path to work goals easier to travel by providing coaching and direction, Reduce frustrating barriers to goal attainment, Increase opportunities for personal satisfaction by increasing payoffs to people for achieving performance goals
What are the three Contemporary Perspectives of Leadership?
Charismatic leader, Transformational leader, Transactional leader
Charismatic leader
dominant, exceptionally self-confident, and have a strong conviction of moral righteousness
Transformational leader
motivates people to transcend their personal interests for the good of the group
Transactional leader
manage through transactions, using their legitimate, reward and coercive powers to give commands and exchange rewards for services rendered
What are the four Skills and Strategies of Transformation Leaders?
Having a vision, Communicating their vision, Building trust, Having positive self-regard
forces that energize, direct and sustain a person’s efforts.
Goal Setting Theory
Proposes that people have conscious goals that energize them and direct their thoughts and behaviors toward a particular end
Well-crafted goals are highly motivating if...
Meaningful, Acceptable, Challenging but Attainable, Specific and quantifiable
Stretch Goals
Targets that are exceptionally demanding, and that some people would never even think of.
Vertical stretch goals
aligned with current activities including productivity and financial results
Horizontal stretch goals
involve people’s professional development, such as attempting and learning new, difficult things
What are the four key consequences of behavior?
Positive reinforcement, Negative reinforcement, Punishment, Extinction
Positive reinforcement
applying a consequence that increases the likelihood that the person will repeat the behavior that led to it.
Negative reinforcement
removing or withholding an undesirable consequence
administering an aversive consequence.
withdrawing or failing to provide a reinforcing consequence.
What should rewards be?
Should support the firm’s strategy, Should relate people’s performance in relation to strategic objectives, Can be nonmonetary (intellectual challenge, greater responsibility, autonomy, recognition, flexible benefits, and greater influence over decisions)
When is it appropriate to punish mistakes?
Violation of law, ethical standards, important safety rules, When employees perform like a slacker
When is inapproiate to punish mistakes?
When poor performance is not the individual’s fault, When managers take out their frustrations on the wrong people
Expectancy theory
proposes that people will behave based on their perceived likelihood that their effort will lead to a certain outcome and on how highly they value that outcome.
What are the three events of Expectancy theory?
Effort, Performace, Outcome
What are the Beliefs of Expectancy theory?
Expectancy, Instrumentality, Valence
employees’ perception of the likelihood that their efforts will enable them to attain their performance goals; EP linkage
the perceived likelihood that performance will be followed by a particular outcome; PO linkage
the value associated with that outcome. Eg, do I even like/want this outcome? Is this meaningful to me?
What are the three Managerial Implications of Expectancy Theory?
Increase expectancies, Identify positively valent outcomes, Make performance instrumental toward positive outcomes
Increase expectancies (Expectancy Theory)
provide a work environment that facilitates good performance and set realistically attainable performance goals
Identify positively valent outcomes (Expectancy Theory)
Understand want people want to get out of work
Make performance instrumental toward positive outcomes (Expectancy Theory)
Make sure that good performance is followed by personal recognition and praise, favorable performance reviewers, pay increases, and other positive results
What the three things of Mclelland's Theory?
Need for Achievement, Need for Affiliation, Need for Power
What are the two types of motivation?
Extrinsic motivation, Intrinsic motivation
Extrinsic motivation
rewards given to a person by the boss, the company or some other person
Intrinsic motivation
rewards a worker derives directly from performing the job itself
What are the three ways to design motivating jobs?
Job rotation, Job Enlargment, Job Enrichment
Job rotation
changing from one routine task to another to alleviate boredom
Job enlargement
Giving people additional tasks at the same time to alleviate boredom
Job enrichment
Changing a task to make it inherently more rewarding, motivating, and satisfying
Herzberg’s two-factor theory
Proposed two broad categories of factors that affect people working on their jobs
What are Proposed two broad categories of factors that affect people working on their jobs of the Herzberg’s two-factor theory?
Hygiene Factors and Motivators
Hygiene factors
characteristics of the workplace, such as company policies, working conditions, pay, and supervision, that can make people dissatisfied.
Factors that make a job more motivating, such as additional job responsibilities, opportunities for personal growth and recognition, and feelings of achievement.
What are the core job dimensions of Hackman and Oldham Model?
Skill Variety, Task Identity, Task significance, Automony, and Feedback
What are the critical physhological states of Hackman and Oldham Model?
Expericenced meangifulness of the work, Experienced reponsilbilty for the outcome of work, Knowledge of the actual results of the work activties
What are the personal and work outcome of the Hackman and Oldman Model?
High Internal Work motivation, High-Quality work performance, High sastisfaction with the work, Low absteenism and turnover
What are the Five core job dimensions of Hackman and Oldham Theory?
Skill variety, Task identity, Task significance, Autonomy, Feedback
Equity Theory
Proposes that people assess how fairly they have been treated according to two key factors outcomes and inputs
various things the person receives on the job
contributions the person makes to the organization
Equity Equation of the Equity Theory
Their own Outcomes/Inputs Versus Others’ Outcomes/Inputs
How people restore equity
Reducing their inputs, Increase their outcomes, Decrease others’ outcomes, Increase others’ inputs
a small number of people with complementary skills who are committed to a common purpose, set of performance goals, and approach for which they hold themselves mutually accountable
Working Group
collection of people who work in the same area or have been drawn together to undertake a task but do not necessarly have a common goal
Parallel teams
composed of members from various jobs who provide recommendations to managers about important issues that run “parallel” to the organization’s production process
Project teams
formed to take on “one-time” tasks that are generally complex and require a lot of input from members with different types of training and expertise.
Action teams
perform tasks that are normally limited in duration. However, those tasks are quite complex and take place in contexts that are either highly visible to an audience or of a highly challenging nature.
try to understand the boundaries in the team and get a feel for what is expected of them
remain committed to ideas, triggers conflict that affects some relationships and harms the team’s progress.
realize that they need to work together to accomplish team goals.
members are comfortable working within their roles, and the team makes progress toward goals.
Social loafing
working less hard and being less productive when in a group
Social facilitation effect
working harder when in a group than when working alone
different sets of expectations for how different individuals should behave
Task Specialist
An individual who has more advanced job-related skills and abilities than other group members possess
Team Maintenance Specialist
Individual who develops and maintains team harmony
The degree to which a group is attractive to its members, members are motivated to remain in the group, and members influence one another
team member who stays abreast of current information and informs the group of important developments
making decisions with the team and then telling outsiders of the team’s intentions
team simultaneously emphasize internal team building and achieve external visibility
team members interact frequently with outsiders; diagnose the needs of customers, clients, and higher-ups; and experiment with solutions before taking action
a reaction to conflict that involves ignoring the problem by doing nothing at all, or deemphasizing the disagreement
style of dealing with conflict involving cooperation on behalf of the other party but not being assertive about one’s own interests
a style of dealing with conflict involving moderate attention to both parties
a style of dealing with conflict involving strong focus on one’s own goals and little or no concern for the other person’s goals
a style of dealing with conflict emphasizing both cooperation and assertiveness in order to maximize both parties’ satisfaction
Superordinate goals
higher-level goals taking priority over specific individual or group goals
a third party who intervenes to help others manage their conflict