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126 Cards in this Set

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accounts for the level, direction, and persistence of effort expended at work.


an unfulfilled physiological or psychological desire.

Lower- Order Needs

physiological, safety, and social needs in Maslow's Hierarchy.

Higher- Order Needs

esteem and self- actualization needs in Maslow's Hierarchy.

Self Actualization Needs

Higher Order Needs

- Creative and challenging work

- Participation in decision making

- Job Flexibility and Autonomy

Esteem Needs

Higher Order Needs

-Responsibility of an important job

- Promotion to higher status job

-Praise and recognition from boss

Social Needs

Lower Order Needs

- Friendly Co-workers

- Interaction with customers

- Pleasant supervisor

Safety Needs

Lower Order Needs

- Safe working conditions

- Job security

- Base compensation and benefits

Physiological Needs

Lower Order Needs

- Rest and Refreshment Breaks

- Physical comfort on the job

- Reasonable Work Hours

Existence Needs

Alderfer's ERG Theory

desires for physiological and material well being

Relatedness Needs

Alderfer's ERG Theory

desires for satisfying interpersonal relationships.

Growth Needs

Alderfer's ERG Theory

desires continued psychological growth and development.

Need for achievement


the desire to do something better, to solve problems, or to master complex tasks.

Need for power


the desire to control, influence, or be responsible for other people.

Need for affiliation


the desire to establish and maintain good relations with people.

Need for Personal Power

seeking power for personal gratification

Need for Social Power

seeking power to help people and groups achieve goals.

satisfier factor

found in job content, such as a sense of achievement, recognition, responsibility, advancement, or personal growth.

Improving this increases job satisfaction.

hygiene factor

found in the job context, such as working conditions, interpersonal relations, organizational policies, and salary.

Improving this decreases job dissatisfaction.

job design

the allocation of specific work tasks to individuals and groups.

job enrichment

increases job content by adding work planning and evaluating duties normally performed by the supervisor.

Perceived negative inequity

discomfort felt over being harmed by unfair treatment.

perceived positive inequity

discomfort felt over benefitting from unfair treatment.


a person's belief that working hard will result in high task performance.


a persons belief that various outcomes will occur as a result of task performance.


the value a person assigns to work related outcomes

self efficacy

a persons belief that they are capable of performing a task

The Law of effect

states that behavior followed by pleasant consequences is likely to be repeated; behavior followed by unpleasant consequences is not.

Operant Conditioning

the control of behavior by manipulating its consequences

Positive Reinforcement

strengthens a behavior by making a desirable consequence contingent on its occurrence.

Negative Reinforcement

strengthens behavior by making the avoidance of an undesirable consequence contingent on its occurrence.


discourages a behavior by making an unpleasant consequence contingent on its occurrence.


discourages a behavior by making the removal of a desirable consequence contingent on its occurrence.


positive reinforcement of successive approximations to the desired behavior.

Law of Contingent Reinforcement

deliver the reward only when desired behaviors occurs

Law of Immediate Reinforcement

deliver the reward as soon as possible after the desired behavior occurs.


a collection of people who regularly interact to pursue common goals.


the process of people actively working together to accomplish common goals


the creation of a whole greater than the sum of its individual parts.

Social Loafing

the tendency of some people to avoid responsibility by free- riding in groups

Formal Team

officially recognized and supported by the organization.

Informal Group

unofficial and emerges from relationships and shared interests among members.


designated to work on a special task on a continuing basis.

Project Team/ Task Force

convened for a specific purpose and disbands after completing its task.

Cross- Functional Team

Operates with members who come from different functional units of an organization.

Employee Involvement Team

meets on a regular basis to help achieve continuous improvement.

Quality Circle

a team of employees who meet periodically to discuss ways of improving work quality.

Virtual Team

members work together and solve problems through computer based interactions.

Self- managing Team

members have the authority to make decisions about how they share and complete their work.

Effective Team

achieves high levels of task performance, membership satisfaction, and future viability.

Team Diversity

the mix of skills, experiences, backgrounds, and personalities of team members.

Homogeneous teams

have members with similar personal characteristics.

Heterogenous Teams

have members with diverse personal characteristics.

Team Process

the way team members work together to accomplish tasks.

Team IQ

the ability of a team to perform well by using talent and emotional intelligence.

Five Stages of Team Development

Forming: initial orientation and interpersonal testing

Storming: conflict over tasks and working as a team

Norming : consolidation around task and operating agendas

Performing: teamwork and focused task performance

Adjourning: task completion and disengagement


a behavior, rule, or standard expected to be followed by team members.

Performance Norm

defines the effort and performance contributions expected of team members.


the degree to which members are attracted to and motivated to remain part of a team.

Task Activity

an action taken by a team member that directly contributes to the group's performance purpose.

maintenance activity

an action taken by a team member that supports the emotional life of the group.

Distributed Leadership

when any and all members contribute helpful task and maintenance activities to the team.

Disruptive Behaviors

self serving and cause problems for team effectiveness.

decentralized communication network

allows all members to communicated directly with one another.

centralized communication network

communication flows only between individual members and a hub or center point.

restricted communication network

contest one another positions and restrict interactions with one another.

Team Building

involves activities to gather and analyze data on a team and make changes to increase its effectiveness.

Decision Making

the process of making choices among alternative courses of action.


reached when all parties believe they have had their say and been listened to, and they agree to support the groups final decision.


a tendency for highly cohesive teams to lose their evaluative capabilities.


a disagreement over issues of a substance and or an emotional antagonism.

Substantive Conflict

involves disagreements over goals, resources, rewards, policies, procedures, and job assignments.

Emotional Conflict

results from feelings of anger, distrust, dislike, fear, and resentment as well from personality clashes.


pretends that a conflict doesn't really exist.


smoothing, plays down differences and highlights similarities to reduce conflict.


authoritative command, uses force, superior skill, or domination to win a conflict.


occurs when each party to the conflict gives up something of value to the other.


problem solving, involves working through conflict differences and solving problems so everyone wins.

Conflict Resolution

the removal of the substantive and/or emotional reasons for a conflict.

Social Capital

the capacity to attract support and help from others to get things done.


the process of sending and receiving symbols with meanings attached.

Effective Communication

the receiver fully understands the intended meaning

Efficient Communication

occurs at minimum cost to the sender.

Persuasive Communication

Presents a message in a manner that causes others to accept and support it.


anything that interferes with the communication process.

Communication Channel

the pathway used to carry a message.

Channel Richness

the capacity of a communication channel to effectively carry information.

Nonverbal Communication

takes place through gestures, expressions, posture, and even use of interpersonal space.

Mixed Message

results when words communicate one message while actions, body language, or appearance communicates something else.

Information Filtering

the intentional distortion of information to make it more favorable to the recipient.

Active Listening

helps the source of a message say what he or she really means.


the process of telling someone else how you feel about something that person did or said.


the study of the way we use and communicate with space.

Communication Transparency

involves being honest and openly sharing accurate and complete information.

Open- Book Management

managers provide employees with essential financial information about their employers.


the tendency to consider one's culture superior to any and all others.

Cultural Etiquette

use of appropriate manners and behaviors in cross- cultural situations.


describes race, gender, age, and other individual differences.

Revolving Door Syndrome

high turnover among minorities and women.


how open the organization is to anyone who can perform a job.

Multicultural Organization

based on pluralism and operates with inclusivity and respect for diversity.

Glass Ceiling

a hidden barrier to the advancement of women and minorities.

Leaking Pipeline Problem

occurs when women leave career because employers lack family friendly policies and practices.


when minority members adopt characteristics of majority cultures in order to succeed.

Organizational subcultures

groupings of people based on shared demographic and job identities.


the belief that one's membership group or subculture is superior to all others.

Occupational Subcultures

form among people doing the same kinds of work.

Ethnic/ National Subcultures

Form among people from the same races, language groupings, regions, and nations.

Cultural Intelligence

the ability to work well in situations of cultural diversity.

Generational Subcultures

form among people in similar age groups.

Managing Diversity

building an inclusive work environment that allows everyone to reach his or her potential.

Culture Shock

the confusion and discomfort that a person experiences when in an unfamiliar culture.

Cultural Intelligence

the ability to adapt to new cultures and work well in situations of cultural diversity.

High Context Cultures

rely on nonverbal and situational cues as well as spoken or written words in communication.

Low Context Cultures

emphasize communication via spoken or written words.

Monochronic Cultures

cultures where people tend to do one thing at a time.

Polychronic Cultures

cultures where people tend to accomplish many things at once.

tight cultures

social norms are rigid and clear, and members try to conform.

Loose Cultures

social norms are mixed and ambiguous, and conformity varies.

Power Distance

the degree to which a society accepts unequal distribution of power.

Uncertainty Avoidance

the degree to which a society tolerates risk and uncertainty.

Individualism- Collectivism

the degree to which a society emphasized individuals and their self- interests.

Masculinity- Femininity

the degree to which a society values assertiveness and materialism.

Time Orientation

the degree to which a society emphasizes short term or long term goals.

Ecological Fallacy

assumes that a generalized cultural value applies equally well to all members of the culture.

Intercultural Competencies

skills and personal characteristics that help us be successful in cross- cultural situations.