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112 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
A __________ has a common purpose that is shared by the people in the company.
A systematic arrangement of people brought together to accomplish some specific purpose.
Two most important common characteristics of an organization:
1. People
2. Goals
Common characteristics of organizations:
1. Distinct purpose and goals
2. People
3. Structure
People who work directly on a job or task and have no responsibility for overseeing the work of others.
Individuals in an organization who direct the activities of others.
Organizational level which is most responsible for planning.
Top Managers
Organizational level which is most responsible for controlling and monitoring.
First-Line Managers
Supervisors responsible for directing the day-to-day activities of operative employees.
First-Line Managers
Individuals at levels of management between the first-line manager and top management.
Middle Managers
Individuals who are responsible for making decisions about the direction of the organization and establishing policies that affect all organizational members.
Top Managers
The process of getting things done, effectively and efficiently, through and with other people.
Component of managements of doing the thing correctly;
Refers to the relationship between inputs and outputs;
Seeks to minimize resource costs.
Component of management of doing the right things;
Goal attainment;
Good management revolves around _________ & __________.
You can be ________ without being ________.
Four management process activities:
1. Controlling
2. Planning
3. Organizing
4. Leading
Management process activity which includes defining goals, establishing strategy and developing plans to coordinate activities.
Management process activity which includes determining what tasks to be done, who is to do them, how the tasks are to be grouped, who reports to whom, and where decisions are to be made.
Management process activity which includes motivating employees, directing the activities of others, selecting the most effective communication channel and resolving conflicts.
Management process activity which involves the process of monitoring performance, comparing it with goals and correcting any significant deviations.
Mintzberg's INTERPERSONAL managerial roles:
Mintzberg's INFORMATIONAL managerial roles:
Mintzberg's DECISIONAL managerial roles:
Disturbance Handler
Resource Allocator
A managers role as a spokesperson is more important in a _______ firm.
A managers role as a resource allocator is more important in a _______ firm.
A managers role as a disseminator is less important in a _______ firm.
A managers role as a entrepreneur is less important in a _______ firm.
General skills of a successful manager:
Of the four general skills of a successful manager, those which are ________ are more important for execs.
Of the four general skills of a successful manager, those which are ________ are more important for middle managers.
Of the four general skills of a successful manager, those which are ________ are more important for entry and first-level managers.
General skill for a manager which involves the vision for the future of a company.
General skill for a manager which includes "soft skills", such as dealing with people, having empathy, communication skills, etc.
Management compensation reflects the market forces of ______ & _______.
Discipline which relates to business and involves the study of an individual.
Discipline which relates to business and involves the study of an individual with a group.
Wrote the "Wealth of Nations";
Advocated the economic advantages that organizations and society would reap from the division of labor.
Adam Smith
Machine power began to substitute for human power;
Improved and less costly transportation systems became available;
Larger organizations developed to serve larger markets;
Industrial Revolution
Term used to describe the hypotheses of the scientific management theorists and the general administrative theorists.
Classical Approach
Advocates the use of the scientific method to define the "one best way" for a job to be done.
Favored incentive wage plans'
Separated managerial work from operative work
Frederick W. Taylor
Max Weber developed the idea of the _______.
Ideal type of organization characterized by division of labor, a clearly defined hierarchy, detailed rules and regulations, and impersonal relationships
Series of studies done during the 1920s and 1930s that provided new insight into group norms & behaviors.
Hawthorne Studies
Social norms or standards of the group are the key determinants of individual work behavior.
Hawthorne Effect
Movement based on a belief in the importance of employee satisfaction -- a satisfied worker was believed to be a productive worker.
Human Relations Movement
Evolved out of the development of mathematical and statistical solutions to military problems during WWII.

Involves the use of statistics, optimization models, information models, and computer simulations to improve management decision making for planning and control.
Operations Research
Defines a system as a set of interrelated and interdependent parts arranged in a manner that produces a unified whole.
The Systems Approach
A system that is not influenced by and does not interact with its environment.
Closed System
A system that dynamically interacts with its environment.
Open System
Any group that is affected by organizational decisions and policies
Replaces more simplistic systems and integrates much of management theory.
The Contingency Approach
Four Contingency Variables:
1. Organization Size
2. Routineness of task technology
3. Environmental Uncertainty
4. Individual Differences
The concept of a boundary-less world; The production and marketing of goods and services worldwide.
Global Village
A management structure in which internal arrangements that impose artificial geographic barriers are broken down.
Borderless Organization
Type of international businesses:
Multinational Corporations (MNCs)
Transnational Corporation (TNC)
Strategic Alliances
Borderless Organization
An effect of globalization on managers;
A narrow focus in which one sees things solely through one's own view and from one's own perspective.
A cross-cultural investigation of leadership and national culture
Global Leadership and Organizational Behavior Effectiveness (GLOBE)
Any equipment, tools, or operating methods that are designed to make work more efficient.
Any computer transaction that occurs when data are processed and transmitted over the internet.
The applications of e-business concepts offered to stakeholders.
The full breadth of activities included in a successful Internet-based enterprise.
The linking of a worker's computer and modem with those of co-workers and management at an office.
A firm's obligation, beyond that required by the law and economics, to pursue long-term goals that are beneficial to society.
Social Responsibility
The obligation of a business to meet its economic and legal responsibilities and no more.
Social Obligation
The ability of a firm to adapt changing societal conditions.
Social Responsiveness
A set of rules or principles that defines right and wrong conduct.
A formal document that states and organization's primary values and the ethical rules it expects managers and operatives to follow.
Code of Ethics
Three views of ethics:
1. Utilitarian
2. Rights
3. Theory of Justice
The process of initiating a business venture, organizing the necessary resources, and assuming the risks and rewards.
A person within an organization who demonstrates entrepreneurial characteristics -- has confidence in his or her abilities, is willing to seize opportunities for change, and expects surprises and capitalizes on them.
An activity in an organization designed to create a more efficient operation through extensive layoffs.
Linking staffing levels to organized goals.
An organization's use of outside firms for providing necessary products and services.
Three labor supply an demand adjustments:
1. Downsizing
2. Rightsizing
3. Outsourcing
Component of flexible workforces;

The small group of full-time employees of an organization who provide some essential job tasks for the organization.
Core Employees
Component of flexible workforces;

Part-time, temporary, and contract workers who are available for hire on an as-needed basis.
Contingent Workforce
Work < 40 hours a week;
Good source of staffing for peak hours;
May be involved in job sharing;
Part-Time Employees
Generally employed during peak periods;
Fill in for employees over extended period;
Temporary Employees
Hired to work on specific projects;
Paid when firm receives particular deliverables;
LAbor cost that is fixed by contract;
Contract Workers
The Japanese term for an organization committed to continuous improvement.
Defining the organization's objectives or goals;
Establishing the overall strategy for achieving those goals;
Developing a comprehensive hierarchy of plans to integrate and coordinate activities;
Planning is concerned with _____ as well as with _____.
Type of plans which are long term, directional and single use.

Organization-wide, establish overall objectives, and position an organization in terms of its environment.
Strategic Plans
Type of plans which are short term, specific and standing.

Specify the details of how an organization's overall objectives are to be achieved.
Tactical Plans
Plans which cover less than one year.
Short-Term Plans
Plans which extend beyond five years.
Long-Term Plans
Organizations often start with a _______ plan and follow with _____ plans.
Plans which have clearly defines objectives and leave no room for misinterpretation.

Often tactical.
Specific Plans
Plans which are flexible and set out general guidelines.

Often strategic
Directional Plans
Plans which are used to meet the needs of a particular or unique situation.

Used to solve a specific problem which we do not expect to reoccur.
Single Use Plan
A system in which specific performance objectives are jointly determined by subordinates and their supervisors, progress toward objectives is periodically reviewed, and rewards are allocated on the basis of that progress.
Management by Objectives (MBO)
Common elements in an MBO Program:
Goal Specificity
Participative Decision Making
Explicit Performance Period
Performance Feedback
A nine-step process that involves strategic planning, implementation, and evaluation.
Strategic Management Process
Defines the present purpose of the organization
Mission Statement
Are specific measure (milestones) for achievement, progress and performance.
Explains the business founders' vision and describes the strategy and operations of that business.
Strategic Plan
Involves screening large amounts of information to detect emerging trends and create a set of scenarios.
Environmental Scanning
Information about competitors that allows managers to anticipate competitors actions rather than merely react to them.
Competitive Intelligence
Analysis of an organization's strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats in order to identify a strategic niche that the organization can exploit.
SWOT analysis
Internal resources that are available or things that an organization does well.
A unique skill or resource that represents a competitive edge.
Core Competency
Resources that an organization lacks or activities that it does not do well.
Positive external environmental factors.
Negative external environmental factors.
Strategies for growth:
Direct Expansion
Strategies for Competitive Advantage:
Cost Leadership
Something that a company does better than its competitors.
Competitive Advantage
The search for the best practices among competitors or non-competitors that lead to their superior performance.
Quality management standards set by the International Organization for Standardization. (ISO)
ISO 9000 Series
Companies achieving this certification will have demonstrated that they are environmentally responsible.
ISO 14000
To design, measure, analyze, and control the input side of a production process to achieve the goal of no more than 3.4 defects per million parts or procedures.

Philosophy and measurement process developed in the 1980s at Motorola.
Six Sigma