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14 Cards in this Set

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1. Define the following terms: endothermy
furculum
saltatorial
brachiation
myosin
skeletal muscle
Endothermy—Heat that is obtained or conducted by one’s body (not obtained from environment).

Furculum—A fused clavicle found in birds, provides more strength and was made to flap wings.

Saltatorial—Movement for vertebrates where they hop (kangaroos). Good to clear vegetation.

Brachiation—Arm swinging. Longer forelimbs and hands form hooks. (Gorillas).

Myosin—Motor proteins that tell muscles to move; helps in muscle constriction.

Skeletal Muscle— Muscles used for voluntary movement (like picking your nose, walking)
2. How does respiration in a mammal differ from that of a bird?
In birds there is only a 1-way flow of air, which is more efficient.
3. How is a bat flight and bird flight similar? How do they differ?
Similar:They’re both powered by active flight (the use of wings attached via pectoral muscles to generate lift)

Different:
1) bat flight membrane supported by greatly elongated 2-4 digits vs. birds (allows them more control (sharper/faster turns) in their flight
2) bats: retain mobility of joints of hand and fingers more control
4. Are hair and scales epidermal structures why or why not?
No. Though they’re both visible on the outermost layer of an organism (epidermis), both have roots within the dermal layer underneath.
5. Discuss the two hypotheses regarding how powered flight evolved in birds. What evidence supports each hypothesis?
Ground Up (Running):As feathered Theropod dino’s attempted to catch prey (fast insects), their forelimbs increased in length, increasing lift which gradually adapted towards flight. (Best of the two theories)

Arboreal (From the Trees down)
Immediate ancestor birds lived in trees (theropod dino with long digits and sharp claws)
Tree dwellers leaping between trees parachuting and gliding to the ground adapted to active flight
6. How is bird respiration similar to that in fishes?
The both use a 1 way flow of air.
7. Distinguish between “passive” and “active flight”.
Active flight - using wings attached to the skeleton via. pectoral muscles to generate lift. It is self powered.

Passive flight - using limbs & membrane held flat, they launch themselves into wind. Not self powered.
Examples are parachuting and gliding
8. Explain how a third class lever system works. Provide an example in the body.
The in-force is between the pivot and the outforce, The most common type of lever system, Exa: Flexation at the elbow joint
9. How does a digging animal differ from a running animal in terms of proportions of their levers and why?
Digging animals have a shorter out-lever arm and longer in-lever arm, allowing more force and strength to dig.

Running animals have longer in-lever arms and shorter out-lever arms allowing them to increase their speed/velocity.
10. Describe the adaptation that you would expect to see in a swimming animal, scansorial animal, graviportal animal.
Swimming animal -streamlined body, limbs modified into flippers lost hindlimbs horizontal tail/flukes

Scansorial animal – grasping & hooking elements- recurved claws, nails, adhesion pads,prehensile tail

Graviportal animal - Built like a Rhino or Hippo, Heavy bodied stance and movement, “Radius and Ulna large and free”
11. What is a unique about the respiratory system of birds? How is it similar to that in fish?
one way flow of air, Air passes in one direction through the parabronchi in the lungs, allowing for more efficient gas exchange
2 cycles of respiration (inhalation, exhalation, inhalation, exhalation) for volume of air to pass thru body
12. In a cross section of a wing where is the area of greatest pressure and therefore highest lift?
The area of greatest pressure is underneath the wing, which causes the plane to be pushed upward.
“Lift is generated because the wing moves air downwards, so that air pushes upwards on the wing, so the plane is pushed up.”

http://www.airplanedesign.info/04.htm
13. What is the function of wing slots?
To create drag (increase the pressure over the top of the wing), therefore decreasing its lift. Wing slots are used to decrease acceleration and in landing.
14. Give an example of a flightless bird? Why did flightless birds evolve on islands?
Two flightless birds are the penguin, and the kiwi.
“All (flightless birds) evolved from ancestors that flew and most evolved in the absence of predators… Flightlessness is an adaptation that usually evolves on islands where predators are absent”