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12 Cards in this Set

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List some of the DSM Criteria for MDD

A.) 5 or more of the following symptoms must be present during the same 2 week period and show a change from previous functioning. (1) depressed mood (2) loss of interest of pleasure

B.) They symptoms cause significant distress, impairment in social, occupational, or other important areas of functioning

C.) The episode is not attributable to the physiological effects of a substance or another medical condition


Prevalence of MDD

- In Canada MDD is the most common type of mood disorder

- 1 in 20 people reported having an episode of depression in the last year

- Females have a higher rate rate of depression than males

- Ages 15-24 have the highest incidence of depression


Depression often occurs alongside these disorders

- Generalized anxiety disorder

- Substance abuse disorders

- Panic disorder

- social anxiety disorder



Postnatal depression ranges in prevalence

- 5% to 25%. This can vary depending on which country the study was done


Higher risk for developing MDD

- Girls who were high school drop outs

- University students


MDD is link too the following

- poorer academic achievement

- relationship instability

- suicidal thoughts

- poor work preformance


Genetics for MDD

- Depression runs in families, estimated heritability is 37%

- Individuals with a variant in a serotonin transporter gene were more likely to become depressed in response to stress


What role do hormones play in MDD

- A major role!

- Individuals with MDD have abnormal hormone levels even though there glands are normal

- Hormone irregularities can effect appetite, sleep, and brain chemistry.

- pregnancy and menopause are stages of intense hormone fluctuation, this could explain the increase risk of depression for women at these times.


Neuroanatomy for MDD

- MDD is thought to be a result of disruptions within networks of interconnected brain regions, NOT so much about abnormal functioning in particular brain region.

- however studies do show reduced size in the frontal regions, prefrontal cortex, anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), striatum and amygdala.


Patients with MDD show impairment in the following areas....

- Verbal memory

- working memory

- visuospatial memory

- selective attention


What does all of these mean for patients with MDD?

- MDD patients have trouble disengaging from sad stimuli. They are not able to move on like control groups. It effects them differently


What role does Cortisol play in MDD?

MDD patients secret 25% more cortisol than controls