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68 Cards in this Set

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Active transport

The movement of substrates across a cell membrane against the concentration gradient, a process that requires energy

Adaptation

When a structure, behaviour or physiological process evolves over a long period of time and helps an organism to survive and/or reproduce in a particular environment.

Adaptive advantage

The competitive benefit that an adaptation brings to an organism.

ADH

Antidiuretic hormone, also called vasopressin; this hormone is secreted from the pituitary gland and increases water retention through its action on kidney tubules.

Aerobic respiration

The reaction of products of glucose with oxygen to produce energy in the form of ATP.

Aldosterone

A hormone secreted from the adrenal gland, that regulates mineral and water metabolism by stimulating the reabsorption of sodium in the tubules of the nephron.

Ambient temperature

The surrounding temperature.

Arterial blood gas analysis

The tests done to blood collected from an artery to show concentrations of oxygen and carbon dioxide. It provides a direct measure of the efficiency of gaseous exchange in the lungs.

Artery

The thick-walled elastic blood vessel that carries high pressure blood from the heart.

Biochemistry

The study of the chemistry of living things. This includes the structure and function of the chemical components of living things such as protein and nucleic acid.

Capillary

A narrow thin-walled blood vessel through which substances are exchanged between blood tissues. Capillaries connect arteries to veins.

Carbonic acid

A weak acid that forms when carbon dioxide is dissolved in water.

Catalase

An enzyme found in many cells. It breaks down the toxic by-product of metabolism, hydrogen peroxide, into water and oxygen. It works well in neutral conditions.

Caldode

A stem that has been modified to be green and take a major role in photosynthesis. It lacks the density of stomates that occur in leaves, so reduces water loss.

Deoxygenated blood

Blood that has released much of the oxygen it was carrying into the tissues.

Diffusion

The spreading of substances that results from the random movement of particles.




It is a passive process in that it does not require additional energy.

Ectotherms

Animals whose body temperature aligns with the ambient temperature. These animals lack the ability to generate their own body heat.

Enantiostasis

The maintenance of metabolic and physiological functions in response to variations in the environment.

Endotherms

Animals that are able to generate their own body heat and so generally their body temperature remains constant, despite variations in the ambient temperature.

Enzyme specificity

The unique way in which enzymes act on a specific substrate to produce a specific product.

Enzymes

Organic molecules that speed up chemical reactions and, through their specificity, ensure the correct metabolic pathways.


Enzymes are always proteins.

Estuarine

Belonging to a tidal river mouth environment, with associated conditions of fluctuating water levels and salinity.

Excretory system

The organ system containing the kidney and responsible for the removal of wastes, particularly nitrogenous wastes.

Feedback mechanism

The way the final product of a process self-regulates the process. The process can be activated or inactivated in response to the feedback.

Filtration (referring to the blood)

The process of removing water, certain ions and micro molecules through a physical barrier that retains cells and blood proteins within the blood vessels.

Reabsorption (referring to the blood)

The passage of materials such as water and ions back into the blood vessels after filtration has occurred.

Fludrocortisone

A replacement hormone given to people who cannot secrete sufficient aldosterone.

Glomerulus

The part of a nephron which is responsible for the filtration of the blood. Cells and large protein molecules are retained in the blood but most other materials pass into the Bowman's capsule.

Haemoglobin

The iron-protein compound which is found in red blood cells and carries oxygen.

Homeostasis

The process by which organisms maintain a relatively stable internal environment.

Immunoglobins

The blood proteins that are carried in the plasma and are associated with fighting infection.

Interstitial fluid

The fluid between the tissue cells of animals.

Kidney

The organ responsible for filtration, reabsorption and secretion to remove nitrogenous wastes and achieve water and salt balance in many animals.

It consists of an outer cortex, central medulla and inner pelvis that connects to the ureter.

Longitudinal

Running up and down the length of something, e.g. a plant stem

Metabolism

The chemical processes occurring within a living organism. It is controlled by enzymes.

Nephron

The functional unit of the kidneys

Nervous system

The system that co-ordinates activities in animals by way of electrochemical messages that are transmitted rapidly along nerve cells.

Nitrogenous wastes

Ammonia, urea, uric acid and triethylamine oxide.

These form in different organisms as waste products from the metabolism of proteins.




They vary in toxicity and solubility.

Osmoconformation

The process by which the composition of body fluids changes with the external environment.

Osmoregulation

The process by which the composition of body fluids remains constant, despite any changes to the external environment.

Osmosis

The movement of water through a semi-permeable membrane from where it is highly concentrated to where it occurs in lesser concentration. It is a passive form of transport.

Larger molecules are generally unable to pass through the membrane.

Oxygenated blood

Blood that has come from the lungs and contains a high proportion of oxyhaemoglobin.

Passive transport

The movement of materials that does not require the expenditure of energy. It occurs by physical processes such as diffusion or osmosis.

Pepsin

The product of pepsinogen and hydrochloric acid, both produced by the stomach lining. It is a digestive enzyme that breaks proteins into peptides. It works best at a pH of 2.

Perflurochemicals

Synthetic materials that can carry oxygen and have been researched as a blood substitute. They do not mix with blood so they have to be emulsified.

pH

A measure of the acidity of a solution, ranging from 0 to 14, where pH 7 is neutral and less than 7 is acidic.

Phloem

The living tissues in plants responsible for the transport of sugars. They are found below the cortex, in bundles around the stem.

Phyllode

A leaf stalk that has been modified to carry out the major role of photosynthesis without having the density of stomates, therefore leading to water loss at a lower rate than that for a leaf.

Plasma

The yellow coloured liquid component of blood that carries the cells in suspension.




It makes up 55% of the blood and consists of water, blood proteins and inorganic electrolytes (e.g. sodium, potassium and chloride ions)

Platelets

Also known as thrombocytes.




The cell fragments circulating in the blood that are involved in blood clotting.

They do not contain a nucleus and survive for 8-10 days.

Pulse oximetry

Use of a non-invasive device that fits onto a fingertip or earlobe and measures light absorption by haemoglobin. It gives the percentage of haemoglobin in the blood that is saturated with oxygen.

Receptors

Special cells that detect a stimulus, e.g. light

Red blood cells

Also known as erythrocytes.




The most common type of blood cell; those which carry haemoglobin.

They are disc shaped, with no nucleus, and 7 microns in diameter, on average.

Respiratory system

The organ system that includes the lungs and is responsible for the exchange of gases.

Response

The immediate reaction to a stimulus, often through behaviour or physiology.

Solvent

A substance that dissolves other substances (solutes).

Substrate

A molecule acted upon by an enzyme.

Sucrase

Also called invertase.

An enzyme that acts on the substrate sucrose to produce glucose and fructose.

(As both of the products are reducing sugars, and sucrose is not, Benedict's solution can be used to show that sucrase has worked.)

Transverse

Running directly across (perpendicular to the longitudinal axis).

Universal indicator

An indicator that changes colours over a wide range of pH values, so that it can be used to detect the acidity of a solution.

Vein

A thin-walled vessel of large diameter that carries low-pressure blood from capillaries back to the heart.

A vein contain valves to stop the backward flow of blood, and often relies on surrounding muscles to support the movement of blood.

White blood cells

Also known as leucocytes.

These make up 1% of blood, and are the cells responsible for fighting infection. There are various types and they range from 9-15 microns in size.

Xylem

The non-living tissue responsible for carrying water and dissolved minerals from the roots up through the plant.



Leucocytes

White blood cells.

These make up 1% of blood, and are the cells responsible for fighting infection. There are various types and they range from 9-15 microns in size.

Invertase

Sucrase.

An enzyme that acts on the substrate sucrose to produce glucose and fructose.

(As both of the products are reducing sugars, and sucrose is not, Benedict's solution can be used to show that sucrase has worked.)

Erythrocytes

Red blood cells.

The most common type of blood cell; those which carry haemoglobin.

They are disc shaped, with no nucleus, and 7 microns in diameter, on average.

Thrombocytes

Platelets.




The cell fragments circulating in the blood that are involved in blood clotting.

They do not contain a nucleus and survive for 8-10 days.

Vasopressin

ADH, or antidiuretic hormone




This hormone is secreted from the pituitary gland and increases water retention through its action on kidney tubules.