Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key


Play button


Play button




Click to flip

131 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What are the four main groups of biological macromolecules?
1) Nucleic acids & polynucleotides 2) amino acids and proteins 3) lipids
4) carbohydrates
Found in the nucleus of every cell, building blocks from which every organism is built, gene information, & can act as receptors for drug molecules.
Nucleic acids
Double helix structure
Deoxyribonucleic Acid
Combination of 1 phosphate, 1 deoxyribose sugar & 1 DNA base or you could say they are made from nucleosides.
This group includes: AMP, GMP, CMP, TMP?
Combination of 1 deoxyribose sugar & 1 DNA base.
This group includes: Adenosine, Guanosine, Cytosine &Thymidine
What type of bond connects the 3'-ribose carbon atom of one nucleotide and the 5'-ribose carbon atom of the next nucleotide?
Phosphodiester bond
What are the 4 DNA bases?
Adenine, Guanine, Cytosine & Thymine
DNA can be described as having a: ring/linear/biphasic strand.
Hydrogen bonding patterns of DNA are based on hydrophobic/hydrophilic forces?
Which bases are paired together and how many H bonds do they share?(adenine,guanine, cytosine, thymine)
Adenine & Thymine 2 H bonds
Guanine & Cytosine 3 H bonds
Of the DNA bases, which are purines, describe purines.
Adenine and Guanine, A six membered N ring fused to a five membered N ring
Of the DNA bases, which are pyrimidines, describe pyrimidines.
Thymine and Cytosine, a single six membered N ring
DNA/RNA stays in the nucleus and is rearely in the open state?
How many pairs of genes together make a human genome?
DNA/RNA encodes DNA/RNA.
DNA/RNA encodes protein.
Process of synthesizing RNA from DNA =
Process of synthesizing protein from RNA =
A sequence of three DNA bases =
A______ is translated into an amino acid.
Linear combinations of _______ form proteins.
Amino Acids
The entire set of genes for an organism =
What patient types is the DNA open (cell replication is rapidly occuring)?
First trimester pregnancy and children
What type of drugs work by catching DNA in the open state and block synthesis or transcription?
Cancer drugs/antineoplastic agents & antiviral medications
DNA/RNA floats in and out of the nucleus.
What are the bases of RNA?
Adenine, guanine, cytosine & uracil
What are the 4 types of RNA?
Messenger, Ribosomal, Transfer and Mitochondrial
Which type of RNA is not involved in protein construction?
Which RNA matches the code on the messenger and brings in the amino acid?
This type of RNA utilizes the site outside of the nucleus for protein synthesis (or the joining of amino acids to create a protein).
This type of RNA reads the open DNA.
The specific order of amino acids joined together is determined by the what?
The DNA sequence of codons
In making proteins, 2 amino acids are joined together by a _______ bond.
The carboxylic acid of one residue and the amino group of the next residue, results in a condensation that forms an amide linkage known as a:
Peptide bond
Describe the subgroups that amino acids can be divided into.
Essential & Nonessential
Polar (charged/uncharged) & Neutral
The linear sequence of amino acids that is used to make a protein is its primary/secondary/tertiary structure?
Primary Structure
In describing amino acids, what structure is described as an alpha helix or a beta pleated sheet?
Secondary Structure
A peptide bond has a _____ structure.
The residue side chains are not normally involved in creating the _______ structure of a protein.
The combination of alpha helix and beta sheets and the way they pack together define (tertiary/quaternary) structure of a protein?
The arrangement of separate protein domains with respect to each other in space determines the proteins (tertiary/quaternary) structure?
An amino acid that has not reached full protein status would be called (oligopeptide/polypeptide).
Large proteins or amino acids that have reached protein status would be called (oligopeptide/polypeptide).
Stereospecificity plays part in what type of amino acid structure, the most common?
Hemoglobin is an example of what type of protein structure?
What function of proteins transmits messages from a chemical signal to another portion of the cell.
When a drug is developed, what determines how it will react upon a cell?
Distribution of regulatory proteins (receptors) within the tissue
Where does a primary messenger act?
On the outside of the cell
Where does a secondary messenger act?
On the inside of the cell
Name examples of regulatory proteins.
GPCR, ion channels, Nuclear hormone receptors & tyrosine kinases
How many transmembrane units does a GPCR have?
Where are GPCR dominant?
Nerve tissue
A ___ in the nerve tissue can be called a neurotransmitter and the G protein, intracellularyly, can be called a _____ messenger.
Name examples of neurotransmitters (ligands in the nervous system).
Serotonin, dopamine, epinephrine, norepinephrine, acetylcholine & GABA
Where are ion channels located and what do they regulate?
Ion channels are located within the cell membrane and regulate the entry or exit of ions from one side of cell membrane to the other
Name cations or anions that pass through ion channels.
Potassium, sodium, calcium & chloride
What drives chloride into the cell?
Hormones and vitamin D exert their effects by which type of regulatory protein?
Nuclear hormone receptors
Are nuclear receptors membrane bound?
Which regulatory protein floats intracellularly and when bound by the ligand phosphorylates a secondaryprotein into action?
Tyrosine kinase
Name examples of transport proteins.
neurotransmitter reuptake pumps, amino acid transporters, efflux pumps and chaperone proteins
What functions do proteins provide?
Regulation, transportation, structure, enzyme action,
antibody function, intracellular signaling
The function of these proteins is to move a chemical substance from one place in the cell to another.
Transport proteins
This type of transport protein is located presynaptically and is responsible for removing excess neurontransmitter from the synapse.
Neurotransmitter reuptake pump
This type of transport protein is located within the cellular membrane to discard molecules that are unwanted.
Efflux pumps
Efflux pumps effect the onset/peak/duration/metabolism/excretion of a drug?
A structural protein that forms fibers during cell division to assist in pulling the chromosomes apart between the two forming daughter cells.
Name two drugs that inhibit tubulin.
Taxol and colchicine
A protein that catalyzes a specific chemical reaction.
This protein accelerates a chemical reaction without entering into the reaction and they are reaction specific.
What do enzymes bring that allow a reaction to take place?
What extremes may destroy enzymes?
Temperature, PH, radiation exposure, exposure to heavy metals or salts, dehydration
What enzyme inhibitors do we as SCRNA's use daily?
Neostigmine, Edrophonium
These proteins are essential to our immune response?
During ABO-Rh testing, the patients red cells are tested with serum known to have what?
Antibodies against A and against B to determine blood type and then tested with anti-D antibodies to determine Rh - or +
If a parturient patient is B-, will she need Rhogam after the delivery? Why?
Yes, to protect future fetus' from the wrath of mom's antibodies if that fetus is Rh+ and mom was somehow exposed to baby's blood
What happens when an A+ patient receives B+ blood?
Hemolysis ensues, the basement membrane of the kidneys becomes 'clogged'
What are two types of signal proteins?
Hormones and cytokines
Are signal proteins fast/slow?
Nonpolar, hydrophobic molecules that are soluble in nonpolar organic solvents.
What are cellular functions of lipids?
Store energy
Building blocks of hormones, vitamins and cellular receptors
Alkyl chain with a carboxylic acid on one end describes what?
Fatty acid
The most common fatty acids in humans have how many carbon atoms?
16,18, 20
What does it mean to be an unsaturated fatty acid?
A fatty acid with at least one double bond in its structure (usually a cis)
Which side of a fatty acid allows it to be a barrier against water?
Alkyl side due to its non polar hydrophobic characteristics
An arachidonic acid is saturated or unsaturated? And is the precursor to what other macromolecules in the body?
Prostaglandins, Thromboxanes & 5-HPETE and leukotrienes
What are 5 classes of fats?
Eicosanoids, triacylglycerols,phospholipids, sphingolipids, cholesterol
Are eicosanoids saturated/unsaturated?
What are the 3 major types of prostaglandins?
What agents decrease prostaglandin release?
Prostaglandins - linear
Thromboxanes - 6 sided ring
Leukotrienes - 5 sided ring
Prostaglandins - 5 sided ring
Thromboxanes - 6 sided ring
Leukotrienes - linear
Name some functions of Prostaglandins.
Inflammatory response, vasodilation, inhibit platelet aggregation
Name some functions of Thromboxanes.
Promote clotting and platelet aggregation
Name some functions of 5-HPETE's & Leukotrienes.
Contraction of smooth muscle, constriction of the trachea and modulation of immune response
A simple triple alcohol, when bonded with acid end of a fatty acid, it forms three esters.
Where are triacylglycerols formed? Stored?
What is a triglyceride?
A tricylglycerol with three fatty acids that are identical
A glycerol that is esterfied to two fatty acids and one phosphate group?
At physiologic PH, what happens to the phosphate group of the phospholipid?
It will be in its ionized (anionic) form
What are the two uses of phospholipids in anesthesia?
Drugs that cross the BBB and can get to the fetus, and surfactant
Describe the phospholipid bilayer of a cell membrane.
The outer, polar, phosphate head interacts freely with water while the nonpolar tails are impermeable water.
How do we obtain sphingolipids?
Our body makes them
Aliphatic, pentacyclic with a hydroxyl group A ring, and an alkane D ring describes what kind of structure?
Cholesterol is a vital component of cellular membrane especially where?
Brain and nervous tissue
What is cholesterol a precursor of?
Bile acids, testosterone, estradiol, Vit. D, cortisone and cortisol....
What are the steroid based muscle relaxants?
Pavulon, Vecuronium, Rocuronium
What are the functions of carbohydrates?
Source of energy
Cellular recognition
Structural support
Attached to proteins and lipids
CnH2nOn =
1C + 2H + 1O atom
The names of most carbohydrates end in what?
What are the 3 major groups of carbohydrates based on covalent bonds?
Monosaccharides oligosaccharides polysaccharides
Glyceraldehydes are important molecules involved in what process?
Glycolysis, the process of converting glucose into ATP or energy
The two classes of monosaccharides based on # of Carbons?
Pentoses 5 carbons
Hexoses 6 carbons
The two classes of monosaccharides based on functional group?
Ketoses ketone group
Aldoses aldehyde group
What type of structure do monosaccharides conform to?
Linear or cyclic
What are two sugars that are contained in the nucleotides of RNA and DNA?
Ribose and Deoxyribose
A saccharide that contains 2-10 monosaccharides?
A saccharide that contains >10 monosaccharides?
How many molecules of ATP are synthesized from one molecule of glucose?
What is the storage form of glucose?
What is the main structural component of a cell membrane?
Phospholipid bilayer
Name some glycoproteins (a protein that contains carbohydrates).
GABA, serotonin receptors
What is the function of the Carbohydrate portion of the glycoprotein?
Cellular recognition
Lipids/Carbohydrates assist in the support of the bacterial cell wall.
What are carbohydrates metabolized by?
Oxidative phosphorylation via Krebs Cycle
How many atoms of Oxygen does it take to metabolize a monosaccharide?
Brain and RBC's use what for energy?
What is necessary for glucose to cross the membrane, when a carbohydrate is not available?
Antibiotics work by inhibiting synthesis of what?
Bacterial cell wall (carbohydrate structure)
Cellulose and chitin are associated with structural support of what?
Plants and insects
Name drugs that are carbohydrate based.
Heparin, mycin antibiotics, PCN, antivirals, anti-diabetic agents...