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123 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
At what grade should process reading start?

A. kindergarten
B. first
C. second
D. third
A. kindergarten
What is "shared reading?"
The teacher and children read and re-read chorally big books, poems, and songs.
(or echo reading)
Which of the following is a FALSE statement regarding textbooks:

A. Textbooks are often too difficult for the grade level for which they are assigned.
B. Textbooks used in schools are often old or outdated.
C. Textbooks often do not allow students to study topics in depth.
D. Textbooks are often appealing to students.
D. Textbooks are often appealing to students.
What are "think alouds"?
teachers share the thought processes they go through in formulating meaning from a text
Which of the following is an appropriate response to NARRATIVE text?

A. story mapping
B. written report
C. end of unit test
D. Informal Reading Inventory
A. story mapping
What criteria should teachers use to select a book to read aloud?
Teachers should select literature they enjoy. If teachers do not feel enthusiastic about their selections, they may inadvertently communicate this to the children. Teachers are also helping the children to select good literature on their own. Reading aloud several times each day will provide multiple opportunities for children to extend content learning and to have a wealth of books to choose for "rereading" by themselves.

Selections can come from picture books, stories, poetry, chants, songs, and information texts.
What are some types of words that need attention from teachers because they can cause problems for students.
compound words
homonyms (written differently, sound the same:
see, sea)
homographs (written the same, pronounced differently: read, read)
What purpose does a "me box" serve?
Me Boxes are our first step in building "community". They allow us to introduce ourselves to students. To help "smooth" the process of introductions it is helpful to have a plan or strategy that is fun and helps everyone relax. Also, me boxes help students make connections between their lives and ours.

Thematic Literature Unit
unit based on a curricular area and using quality children's literature ... can be based on a topic, a core book, an author, a genre of literature. Start with curriculum (standards), locate literature, design pre, during, post reading experiences, list activities, decide how many days and which activities on which days
What are the biggest advantages of DRTA's over guided reading?
DRTA stress setting PURPOSES for reading and making PREDICTIONS. Both of these are THINKING skills that increase comprehension and encourage HIGHER ORDER PROCESSING.
Identify best practice:

1.Vocabulary development
a. Possible sentences
b. Workbook pages
c. Dictionary definitions
d. Writing words multiple times
A. Possible sentences

(vocabulary words are displayed and students make sentences using at least 2 of the vocab words in each sentence - helps students activiate prior knowledge and make predictions about what they THINK the words mean. Then the teacher provides sentences from the text that include the vocab words - shares the meaning of the words - and then students check their predictions).
Creative Reading
Reading beyond the lines (higher order)
True or False

Teachers can count on the fact that when they assign reading to be done in a textbook, students do it.
False. Get real! (smile)
Identify best practice:

3.Students retelling a story:
a. Is boring
b. Enhances comprehension
c. Makes students hate story
d. Is embarrassing
B. Enhances comprehension

it is impossible to retell a story accurately and NOT understand the story
What are the components of a balanced reading program?
SQ3R stands for _______, _______, _______, _______, and _______.
survey; question; read; recite; review
What are "minilessons"?
short direct instruction sessions that provide students with information or skill instruction
The purpose of a cloze procedure is usually to ___________________.
determine if a student is reading at a frustration, instructional, or independent level in a textbook or other instructional materials.
How can I best prepare for this (or any) exam?
Try these tips:
True or False

Ability grouping is the preferred method for grouping students for instruction.
False. False. False.
What are the components of the 4-Blocks framework of literacy instruction?
1) guided reading
2) working with words
3) writing
4) self-selected reading
True or False

Vocabulary instruction should take place throughout the day, not just during the language arts or reading period.

Absolutely - content area instruction MUST include development in specialized vocabularies
True or False

Content texts have a higher concept density and less familiar organizational structures than do basal readers, often making them harder to read.
True or False

Teachers can use prereading, during-reading, postreading, and general strategies and activities to enhance comprehension of particular texts.
What are some of Vygotsky's major tenets?
1) learning is social
2) people learn better when a classroom "community" is formed
3) zone of proximal development - the level at which optimum learning can occur
4) scaffolding - teacher provides support as needed for students to be successful learners
5) teachers as mediators - teachers serve as facilitators - more as the "guide on the side" than the "sage on the stage"
The _______ procedure involves deleting some of the words in a passage and having students attempt to fill them in as they read.
What is "guided reading?"
The teacher "guides" the students to use reading & writing strategies appropriately. The teacher helps students in small groups to talk, think, and question their way through the reading or writing process. In Guided Reading, books are at the children's instructional level, and the children do the reading.
The _______ Award is given annually for the best illustrated book in the United States.
Is using invented spelling helpful or harmful to young children?
Using invented spelling HELPS children develop phonemic awareness and understanding of the alphabetic principle.
The _______ _______ is given for the best contribution to children's literature in the United States for a particular year.
Newbery Award
How much wood would a woodchuck chuck if a woodchuck could chuck wood?
Oh, nevermind. (smile) It is midnight and I am far too tired to be writing sensible questions!
True or False

Reading a content area textbook aloud in class does little to enhance student learning.
True. Reading aloud a textbook (paragraph by paragraph) is NOT an effective method to ensure comprehension.
What is the purpose of the Reading Interest Inventory?
To learn students' interests and attitudes toward literature and the reading process so that we might better match students with books, themes, topics, and projects.
True or False

Children increase their vocabularies at a rapid rate during the elementary school years.
What is the one "best" way to teach reading?
There is no one correct way to teach reading.
Identify best practice:

Reading skills instruction should occur:

a.only in basal instruction
b.throughout the day
c.mainly with workbooks
d.on Tuesdays and Thursdays
B. throughout the day

integrated in ALL content areas
Why is it imperative that teachers be "readers?"
If teachers -- on the front line of education -- don't have an active intellectual life, they're not likely to communicate a love of learning and critical thinking to their students.
True or False

Effective teachers establish learning communities and provide opportunities for children to use language in authentic, integrated ways.
When does "reading" occur?
ONLY when MEANING is derived from print. Word calling is NOT reading.
Which of the following focuses on students making predictions?
a. DRA
c. LEA
d. SSR
What is a "teachable moment"?
responding spontaneously to a situation that arises unexpectedly during a lesson or activity
What does "community" mean in relation to classroom instruction (particularly language development)?
Vygotsky suggested that learning is SOCIAL. Human beings have always learned in social context - in other words in "communities" of learners.

Language is intensely personal - we have to relate to one another on a human level and celebrate the language diversities among us. In a community of learners everyone needs everyone else and all learners share in the joys and struggles of becoming literate.
Critical Reading
Reading for evaluation
True or False

Zaner-Bloser is the best handwriting program.
False. The type of handwriting instruction is a decision of the county school board and there are several that are of equal value.
Top-down processing
Reader using schema to comprehend text
True or False

Looking up words in a dictionary to write and learn their meaning is the tried and true method of vocabulary instruction that we should adoopt.
False (false, false)

Teachers need to know a variety of approaches for vocabulary instruction.
Literal comprehension
Directly stated in the text - who, what, when, where, why
The single most important activity for building the knowledge required for
eventual success in reading is _________________________.
reading aloud to children
True or False

Use of literature provides children with purposes and opportunities for reading and writing.

What happens when there is too much bottom-up procesing?
Reader does not activate schema and might misinterpret the text by reading too literally and not connecting with what the reader already knows about a topic/concept.
What are the step in the Language Experience Approach?
1) provide DIRECT experience
2) students either dictate or write then own chart (story)
3) teacher and students re-read chart several times (echo, choral, etc)
4) teacher take home chart or individual stories - read and determine a skill that needs improvement
5) teacher plans a mini-lesson to address skill, on next day teach lesson
review chart and make corrections
6) teacher and students re-read chart several times (echo, choral, etc)
What are 5 whole language principles that are considered "best practice?" NOTE: Be prepared to give examples of each.
1. Learning is integrated.
2. Tasks are authentic.
3. Learning is social.
4. Learner-centered classrooms.
5. Literature is an integral part of the whole language curriculum.
True or False

Metacognition involves knowing what you know, knowing when you understand new material, knowing how your new understanding was reached, and knowing when you have failed to understand and why.
Bottom-up processing
Reader using the printed text to try and derive meaning
True or False

Basal readers have much narrative material; content texts tend to be expository.
Interpretive Reading
Reading between the lines (higher order thinking)
True or False

Purposeful reading results in better comprehension, and comprehension is better when the task is important to the student.
What are 5 stages of the writing process as described in our text?
p. 386-387 - 5 stages of the writing process
1. prewriting
2. drafting
3. revising
4. editing
5. sharing and publishing
What happens when there is too much top-down processing?
Reader relies too heavily on prior knowledge and might misinterpret the text by superimposing his/her own thoughts onto the text
The smallest unit of sound that distinguishes one word from another.
What is the concept that letters represent speech sounds?
alphabetic principle
What are written accounts of specific incidents or behaviors in the classroom?
anecdotal notes (or anecdotal records)
What are sets of declarative statements related to materials about to be read that are designed to stimulate thinking and discussion?
anticipation guides
What is the term used to describe the collection of data, such as test scores and informal records, to measure student achievement?
What is the ability to carry out a task without having to give it much attention?
What is the reading model that depicts reading as being iitiated by examination of the printed symbols, with little inpus required from the reader?
bottom-up model
What is the term to describe the method of estimating reading difficulty by omitting every 5th word in a reading passage and observing the number of correct words a reader can supply?
cloze procedure
What is the term for clues to word meanings or pronunciations found in the surrounding words or sentences?
context clues
What is the term for learning through an instructional and grouping procedure that utilizes mixed-ability groups of students who work cooperatively to achieve certain goals?
cooperative learning
Define a directed reading-thinking activity (DRTA) and tell why it is used.
A general plan for directing the reading of content area reading selections or basal reader stories and for enouraging children to think as they read, to predict, and to check their predictions.
What is "drite" and when would you expect to see it?
drite: a combination of drawing and writing.

Pre-school and very young children will combine drawing and letters to tell a story of illustrate an event.
What are "electic" approaches to teaching reading?
Approches to teaching reading that combine desirable aspects of a number of different major approaches.
What is emergent literacy?
A developing awareness of the interrelatedness of oral and written language.
What is "environmental print"?
Words that children frequently see around them.
What is expository text?
A precise, factual writing style. Textbooks and information books are examples of expository text.
What characterizes the "frustration level" of reading?
A level of reading difficulty with which a reader is unable to cope; when reading material is on this level, the reader usually recognizes 90 percent or less of the words he or she reads or comprehends 50 percent or less of what he or she reads.
What is a "genre?"
A category used to classify works of literature, such as historical fiction, bibliography, or folktales.
What is a "grapheme?"
A written symbol that represents a phoneme.
What characterizes the "independent level" of reading?
A level of reading difficulty low enough that the reader can progress without noticeable hindrance; the reader can ordinarily recognize at least 99 percent of the words and comprehend at least 90 percent of what he or she reads.
What are "inflectional endings"?
Endings that when added to nouns change the number, case, or gender; when added to verbs change the tense or person; and when added to adjectives change the degree. Examples: er, est, s, es
What characterizes the "instructional level" of reading?
A level of difficulty at which the reader can read with understanding with teacher assistance; the reader can ordinarily recognize at least 95 percent of the words in a selection and comprehend at least 75 percent of what he or she reads.
What is the "interactive" theory of reading?
Theory that depicts reading as a combination of reader-based and text-based processing.
What is "interpretive" reading?
Reading between the lines.
What is "invented spelling"?
Unconventional spellings resulting from children's attempts to associate sounds with letters.
Describe the Language Experience Approach to reading.
An approach in which read and the other language arts are interrelated in the instructional program and the experiences of children are used as the basis for reading materials.
What is linguistics?
The scientific study of human speech.
What is "literal comprehension"?
Understanding of ideas that are directly stated in the reading.
Define metacognition.
A person's knowledge of the functioning of his or her own mind and his or her conscious efforts to monitor or control this functioning. In other words, thinking about your thinking processes.
What is a miscue?
An unexpected oral reading error.
What are morphemes?
The smallest units of meaning in a language.
What is the narrative style of writing?
Storylike presentation. Novels and short stories are examples of narrative writing.
What is the onset of a word?
Consonants or consonant clusters at the beginning of a syllable - all letters that come before the first vowel in a word.
What is the rime of a word?
The first vowel or vowel combination and all the letters that follow to the end of a word.
What is a phoneme?
The smallest unit of sound in a language.
What is phonemic awareness?
An understanding that speech consists of a series of small sound units.
What is phonics?
The association of speech sounds with printed symbols.
What are predictable books?
Books that use repetition, rhythmic language patterns, and familiar concepts.
What are propaganda techniques?
Techniques of writing used to influence people's thinking and actions, including bandwagon techniques, card stacking, glittering generalities, name calling, plain-folks talk, testimonials, and transfer techniques.
To what does the "readability" of a text refer?
An objective measure of the difficulty of written material.
What is a "readers theater"?
Students reading aloud from scripts in a dramatic style.
What is "reciprocal teaching"?
A technique to develop comprehension and metacognition in which the teacher and students take turns being "teacher." They predict, generate questions, summarize, and clarify ideas.
What is "retelling"?
A student's recounting of a story or other material that he or she has read.
What is a "running record"?
A strategy for recording miscues during a student's oral reading.
What is "scaffolding"?
Offering support through modeling or feedback, and then withdrawing support gradually as the learner gains competence.
What is "schema"?
A preexisting knowledge structure developed about a thing, place, or idea.
What is "schemata"?
The clusters of information that people develop about things, places, and ideas.
What are semantic clues?
Meaning clues.
What is a "semantic feature analysis"?
A technique in which the presence or absence of particular features in the meaning of a word is indicated through symbols on a chart, making it possible to compare word meanings.
What is a semantic map?
Graphic representations of relationships among words and phrases in written material.
What is semantic webbing?
Making a graphic representation of relationships in written material through the use of a core question, strands (answers), strand supports (facts and inferences from the story), and strand ties (relationships of the strands to each other).
What is a shared-book experience?
Reading and rereading books in a group activity for understanding and enjoyment.
What are sight words?
Words that are recognized immediately, without having to resort to analysis.
SQ3R - define.
A study method consisting of five steps: survey, question, read, recite, review.
What is story mapping?
Making graphic representations of stories that make clear the specific relationships of story elements.
What is structural analysis?
Analysis of words by identifying prefixes, suffixes, root words, inflectional endings, contractions, word combinations forming compound words, and syllabication.
What are syntactic clues?
Clues derived from the word order in sentences.
What are think alouds?
Verbalizing aloud the thought processes present as one reads a selection orally.
What is the top-down theory?
Models that depict reading as beginning with the generation of hypotheses or predictions about the material by the reader.
What is a trade book?
A book marketed to the general public (not a textbook).
What is the transactive theory?
Theory based on Rosenblatt's idea that every reading act is a transaction that involves a reader and a text and occurs at a particular time in a specific context, with meaning coming into being during the transaction between the reader and the text.
What is a word bank?
A collection of sight words that have been mastered by an individual pupil, usually recorded on index cards.
What is a word sort?
Categorization activities that involve classifying words into categories.
What is the zone of proximal development?
The span between a child's actual skill level and potential level when assistance is given.