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52 Cards in this Set
 Front
 Back
Necessary or sufficient indicator? Unless 
Sufficient 

Necessary or sufficient indicator? if only 
Necessary 

Necessary or sufficient indicator? Only 
Necessary 

Necessary or sufficient indicator? Whenever 
Sufficient 

Necessary or sufficient indicator? When 
sufficient 

Necessary or sufficient indicator? Where 
sufficient 

Necessary or sufficient indicator? only if 
necessary 

Necessary or sufficient indicator? Always 
necessary 

Necessary or sufficient indicator? must 
necessary 

Necessary or sufficient indicator? requires 
necessary 

Necessary or sufficient indicator? anyone 
sufficient 

Necessary or sufficient indicator? All 
sufficient 

Necessary or sufficient indicator? Every 
sufficient 

Necessary or sufficient indicator? If 
sufficient 

Necessary or sufficient indicator? Only when 
necessary 

Necessary or sufficient indicator? Only where 
necessary 

Necessary or sufficient indicator? Unless 
* negate one idea, then make it the sufficient 

Necessary or sufficient indicator? Until 
* negate one idea, then make it the sufficient 

Necessary or sufficient indicator? Without 
* negate one idea, then make it the sufficient 

Necessary or sufficient indicator? Or inclusive 
* negate one idea, then make it the sufficient 

Necessary or sufficient indicator? None 
* negate one idea, then make it the necessary 

Necessary or sufficient indicator? Not Both 
* negate one idea, then make it the necessary 

Necessary or sufficient indicator? Never 
* negate one idea, then make it the necessary 

Necessary or sufficient indicator? Cannot 
* negate one idea, then make it the necessary 

What are the 3 types of OR? describe each. 
o Inclusive meaning “and/or” * most often used.John either enrols in Economics or Poli Sci. § ** the LSAT sees this as he could take one orboth classes o Exclusive meaning – “or, but not both” You maysit at one end of the table or the other § Used for bidirectional conditions, will oftensay, “but not both” o Simply “and” – “Jane is a faster eater thaneither Mary or Jon § *** here you will see some comparison fasterthen, harder then, better then etc. § * “either” doesn’t necessarily mean exclusivityon the LSAT 

what should I remember about none, no, both, never, cannot? 
o BE CAREFUL** The indicator does NOT affect theidea! Having the “none” there does not make Americans /A right away! 

What two ways can "the only" be used? 
o The only students who got As were the ones whostudied o Horses are the only animals that are strong S>H1  Just remember, what is right after “the only” isthe sufficient 

How do you form a contrapositive? 
 “flip and negate” to make a contrapositive! MUSTDO BOTH  the negation is NOT the opposite. The negationof cold is “not cold” not “hot” 

What are Most strongly supported questions like? 
 basically take the conclusion out and hide itinside the answers  don’t think that these are all like Main pointquestions. some, however, ask a question on a small detail in the passage, thatisn’t the main point, but this answer is most strongly supported by the passagethan the others  details! 

What words let us know that what has preceded was context? 
However, But,and Although 

What words are premise indicators? 
For, Since,and Because 

What is an intermediate conclusion? 
a phrase which is a conclusion to oneargument and then a premise for another * be careful, dont let "thus" or "therefore trick you into thinking an intermediate conclusion is the main one * pay attention to who is talking, make sure the main conclusion alines with their views not others presented in the passage 

What are the steps for analyzing necessary sufficient relationships? 
1) find the indicator 2) identify the two ideas or events 3) Apply translation rule 4) translate back to english 

the word "both" in sufficientnecessary relationship translation 
 when there is a “both” like a “not both” “aren’t…Both”“both.. cannot” your two ideas are the two things the both is referring to!  There arent enough buns for both of the kids to be full  idea one: K1 being full  Idea two: K2 being full K1> /K2 ot K2> /K1 

neither nor in sufficientnecessary translation means... 
 not one, and not the other 

Random words that function as necessary... 
is required, is necessary for, is essential Happiness is necessary for a good life GL> H 

what do you do when there are both types of "negate and make necessary/sufficient" groups in one sentence? ex. Never go to Hawaii unless you want to have a good time 
 You can follow the rules for either words, just make sureyou use the other word as a negation on that idea.  If you want to use the rule for Unless, then use the“never” as a negation so symbols= /H and GT then follow rulenegate and use“unless idea” as the sufficient : H>GT or /GT>/H 

How do you weaken or strengthen an argument? 
you either break down the support premies have for the conclusion using assumptions (weaken), or you block these assumptions by saying they are true (strengthen) 

Coincidence vs correlation; How do you debunk each? 
 A coincidence is like two specific thingshappening together once. A correlation is like in general, these two thingshappen together  Coincidence : just check for competing explanations  Correlation: check the chronology, check ifthere is a third variable (block it or introduce it), and check 

What are the 9 valid forms of arguments on the LSAT? MEMORIZE 
a) A is B, __ is A therefore __ is Bb) A is B. __ is not B therefore ___ is not A c) A is B. B is C. Thus A is C. d) A some B. All B C. thus A some C. Some dogs arecute, all cute things are loveable, therefore some dogs are loveable e) Most A are B. All B are C. Thus most A are C.
f) All A are B; All A are C. therefore Some B are C g) All A are B. Some A are C. Thus Some B are C. h) All A are B. Most A are C. Thus Some B are C. i) Most A are B. Most A are C. Therefore, Some Bare C 

What does some mean? All? what are they negated? 
Some= 1100 range (at least 1); can mean ALL negation: NONE ALL= universal quantifier but implies also an existential relationship; It is a point not a range. All implies most which implies some negation: Some...Not. Or....And..Not... 

What does FEW mean? MANY? 
 many means “some”  don’t be confused into thinking that may means alot and some means a little Few “some are” but “most aren’t”  typically they want you to understand that mostaren’t  few= DsomeE and Dm> /E 

What does most mean? 
 ranges from 51100  like some, this can also mean ALL!  Most is a subset of Some 

What are the 7 invalid argument forms? MEMORIZE 
a) A> B therefore B>A b) A>B/A therefore /B c) A>B;B some C. Therefore A some C (here, this COULD be true, but inferences MUST betrue) d) A>B;BmostC. Therefore Amost C e) A some B some C. Therefore A some C f) A most B most C. Therefore A Most C g) A some B. A some C. therefore B some C 

And // Or in sufficient conditions 
when 'or' is in the sufficient, the two elementsare independently sufficient  so EorG>P means E>P and G>P 'And' means the two elements are jointly sufficient, so they do not split. If E and G then P means EandG>P 

And// or in necessary conditions 
 opposite of the sufficient ones  'and' elements split if E then Aand B means E>A and E>B 'Or' elements do not split  if E then A or B means E> AorB 

And/or in contrapositives (DeMorgans Law) 
you flip around like you normally would, but 'and' becomes 'or' and 'or' becomes 'and' and then you negate everything like normal 

Biconditionals: Either or, but not both 
Allan or Chris goes to the park, but not both.  remember that "but" means "and"  So Thiscan be broken down into “Allan or chris goes to park = /A>C or /C>A” and “Allan and Chriscannot both go to the park= A>/Cor C> /A” so what you get is /A<>C or A<>/C * contrapositives for bidirectionals just mean switching the "not" because they are both the sufficient and necessary conditions 

Biconditionals: If but/and only if 
 If and/but only if: Allan attends the meeting ifand only if (but only if) Chris attends the meeting  A<>C because it is a comboof “if chris attends” C>Aand “If Allan Attends” A>C  normally we would not know that if A>B B>A but with this since it is ONLY IF, then we can make it bidirectional, they are both sufficient and necessary 

Biconditionals: ...but not otherwise 
Allan goes to the park if Chris goes to the parkbut not otherwise.  Means “ If Chris goesto the park then Allan goes to the park” and “If Chris doesn’t go to the parkthen Allan doesn’t go to the park” so C>Aor /A>/C plus /C>/Aor A>C  gives us A<>C  means the same thing as if and only if 

Biconditionals: Except 
 someone on the discussion said that Except = “if and only if” with one term negated Allan goes to the park everyday, except whenChris goes.  Means A>/C plus /C>A which gives us A<>/C and /A<>C 

What are the two families of bidirectionals? 
o Always together, never apart: A<>B and /A<>/B (like if and only if and not otherwise) Always apart, never together /A<>B ( or A<>/B same thing obvs) (like except and either or but not both) 