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22 Cards in this Set

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The trachea


(anatomy)/location/function

Attached to the larynx and attached to the lungs




4-5 inch tube made of stiffened hyaline cartilage rings to prevent it collapsing




conducts air between larynx and primary bronchi

The trachea wall contains...

1) respiratory mucosa


2)submucosa


3)cartilage rings


4)adventitia

what is the respiratory mucosa

a luminal surface (air)

submucosa

connective tissue


containing


blood vessels


glands for watery mucus


nerves

cartilage rings


(function/how they work)

connected by smooth muscle




control the size of the lumen when breathing

Adventitia


(what it is/ what it does)

a loose band of fibrous tissue




keeps the tracheas place against the chest wall

The Bronchi


(location, made of)

connected to the trachea




conducts air through primary,secondary and tertiary bronchi into bronchioles

How the primary bronchi works

1) the trachea splits into the left and right primary bronchi which are a few cm long before entering the lung

how the secondary bronchi works

the primary bronchi divides into FIVE secondary bronchi which conduct air into the lungs five lobes

how the tertiary bronchi works

secondary bronchi branch in EIGHTEEN tertiary bronchi which provide BRONCHOPULMONARY SEGMENTS splitting to 10 right and 8 left

how many primary, secondary and tertiary bronchi

2 primary (left and right)


5 secondary


18 tertiary

Bronchi walls


(made of)

very similar to trachea wall


but contains:


less goblet cells


a broken ring of smooth muscle fibres to constrict during exhalation


platelets of hyaline cartilage are thinner for secondary and tertiary bronchis

The bronchioles


(function, placement)

function: conducts are between tertiary bronchi and alveoli




placement: the bronchioles are attached to the alveoli surrounded by elastic fibres so the bronchioles can open during breathing providing elastic recoil

Bronchiole wall


(made of)

transition from ciliated simple columnar (large bronchiole) to ciliated simple cubodial (small bronchioles)


contains:




less goblet cells + seromucos glands than bronchi


no cartilage


has smooth muscle fibres that contract during exhalation

The alveoli


(placement, size, what separates them, what is a cluster called)

each bronchiole connects to a alveolar duct from which numerous alveoli are connected




each alveoli is 0.2-0.5 mm in diameter




separated by: network of capillaries, supportive collagen, elastic fibres




each cluster is called an alveolar sac

Alveoli cells


( what are the types/ how many of each type)

type i - 95%


type ii- 5%

what is type i


(made of/ function)

simple squamous used for a gas exchange site

what is type ii


(made of/ function)

cuboidial with microvilli




it secretes surfactants made up of complex phospholipids and proteins





what does the surfactant secreted by type ii do

reduces surface tension preventing alveoli collapse

Alveolar macrophages


(what are they/ what do they do)

phagocytes




they move between alveoli engulfing inhaled dust and debris

what are alveoli pores


what do they do

the pores perforate the alveoli wall


the pores allow air to pass between alveoli allows for alternate routes of air flow incase alveoli collapse


allowing the air to equilibrate to allow maximal gas exchange.

The respiratory membrane


(what is it/ size/where is it)

membrane between alveoli and blood




about 0.5 um thick


no intestinal fluid


allows co2 and o2 to diffuse easily