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22 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back

The trachea


Attached to the larynx and attached to the lungs

4-5 inch tube made of stiffened hyaline cartilage rings to prevent it collapsing

conducts air between larynx and primary bronchi

The trachea wall contains...

1) respiratory mucosa


3)cartilage rings


what is the respiratory mucosa

a luminal surface (air)


connective tissue


blood vessels

glands for watery mucus


cartilage rings

(function/how they work)

connected by smooth muscle

control the size of the lumen when breathing


(what it is/ what it does)

a loose band of fibrous tissue

keeps the tracheas place against the chest wall

The Bronchi

(location, made of)

connected to the trachea

conducts air through primary,secondary and tertiary bronchi into bronchioles

How the primary bronchi works

1) the trachea splits into the left and right primary bronchi which are a few cm long before entering the lung

how the secondary bronchi works

the primary bronchi divides into FIVE secondary bronchi which conduct air into the lungs five lobes

how the tertiary bronchi works

secondary bronchi branch in EIGHTEEN tertiary bronchi which provide BRONCHOPULMONARY SEGMENTS splitting to 10 right and 8 left

how many primary, secondary and tertiary bronchi

2 primary (left and right)

5 secondary

18 tertiary

Bronchi walls

(made of)

very similar to trachea wall

but contains:

less goblet cells

a broken ring of smooth muscle fibres to constrict during exhalation

platelets of hyaline cartilage are thinner for secondary and tertiary bronchis

The bronchioles

(function, placement)

function: conducts are between tertiary bronchi and alveoli

placement: the bronchioles are attached to the alveoli surrounded by elastic fibres so the bronchioles can open during breathing providing elastic recoil

Bronchiole wall

(made of)

transition from ciliated simple columnar (large bronchiole) to ciliated simple cubodial (small bronchioles)


less goblet cells + seromucos glands than bronchi

no cartilage

has smooth muscle fibres that contract during exhalation

The alveoli

(placement, size, what separates them, what is a cluster called)

each bronchiole connects to a alveolar duct from which numerous alveoli are connected

each alveoli is 0.2-0.5 mm in diameter

separated by: network of capillaries, supportive collagen, elastic fibres

each cluster is called an alveolar sac

Alveoli cells

( what are the types/ how many of each type)

type i - 95%

type ii- 5%

what is type i

(made of/ function)

simple squamous used for a gas exchange site

what is type ii

(made of/ function)

cuboidial with microvilli

it secretes surfactants made up of complex phospholipids and proteins

what does the surfactant secreted by type ii do

reduces surface tension preventing alveoli collapse

Alveolar macrophages

(what are they/ what do they do)


they move between alveoli engulfing inhaled dust and debris

what are alveoli pores

what do they do

the pores perforate the alveoli wall

the pores allow air to pass between alveoli allows for alternate routes of air flow incase alveoli collapse

allowing the air to equilibrate to allow maximal gas exchange.

The respiratory membrane

(what is it/ size/where is it)

membrane between alveoli and blood

about 0.5 um thick

no intestinal fluid

allows co2 and o2 to diffuse easily