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75 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
The pelvis is made up of how many bones?
3 - ilium, ischium and pubis
If there is one pelvic fracture there is likely to be what?
Another fracture
Which artery's branches for the ring supply of arteries at the base of the neck of the femur?
The medial femoral circumflex artery - other contributors include the lateral femoral circumflex artery and the superior and inferior gluteal arteries.
What are fractures of the head or neck of the femur at risk of and what is this type of fracture called?
Avascular necrosis and intracapsular/subcapital fracture
What are the 3 types of femoral fractures?
Intracapsular/subcapital fracture ---
Intertrochanteric fracture ---
Shaft fracture
Which type of femoral fractures is unlikely to disrupt the blood flow to the head of the femur?
Intertrochanteric fracture
Where does the inguinal ligament run?
Pubic tubercle to the ASIS
Where is the mid point of the inguinal ligament? And what occurs there?
Mid way between the pubic tubercle and ASIS. The femoral nerve runs below the inguinal ligament.
What would you call the point midway between the pubic symphysis and the ASIS? And what occurs there?
The mid inguinal point. The femoral artery runs below the inguinal ligament
What is the order of the vessels in the femoral sheath?
Artery, vein, femoral canal (often containing the deep inguinal lymph nodes)
What compartment does the femoral nerve run through and with what?
Runs in the muscular compartment with iliacus muscle.
What runs through the greater sciatic foramen above the piriformis?
Superior gluteal nerve, artery and vein
What runs through the greater sciatic foramen below the piriformis?
Inferior gluteal nerve, artery and vein, the nerve to obturator internus, the nerve to quadrates femoris, posterior cutaneous nerve of the thigh, pudendal nerve and sciatic nerve.
In Good Navel Oranges New Quince Flavour Please Cut Three Pieces S'il vous plait.
Which muscles perform lateral rotation of the thigh?
Piriformis, Obturator internus, Superior and inferior gemelli, Quadratus femoris and Obturator externus
Which muscles are innervated by the nerve to quadratus femoris?
Quadratus femoris and inferior gemelli
Which muscles are innervated by the nerve to obturator internus?
Obturator internus and Superior gemelli
What does Trendelenberg's test indicate?
Suggests weakness of gluteus medius and minimus. Droops on the unaffected side. Superior gluteal nerve.
Which muscles of the gluteal region are responsible for abduction?
Gluteus medius and minimus
Which muscles are innervated by the superior gluteal nerve?
Gluteus medius and minimus
What innervated gluteus maximus?
Inferior gluteal nerve
What is the function of gluteus maximus?
What is the function of tensor fascia latae?
Stabilises the knee
What are the complications of a fracture of the shaft of the femur?
Laceration of the profunda femoral/ deep femoral artery of the thigh --> Hypovolaemic shock because the thigh can hold a lot of blood --> Compartment syndrome is not common as it can hold so much blood
Which muscle is the odd one out in terms on innervation in the muscle compartment of the anterior thigh? And what are the nerves in question?
Psoas major - innervated by anterior rami --- All the rest are innervated by the femoral nerve
Which muscles are responsible for flexion of the hip?
Psoas major, Iliacus and Rectus femoris
What does vastus medialis, intermedius and laterals do?
Extend the knee
Which muscle both flexes at the hip and extends the knee?
Rectus femoris
What is the action of sartorius?
Flexes, abducts and laterally rotates the thigh, flexes the knee
Which nerve is the primary innervation for the medial compartment of the thigh?
Obturator nerve
Which muscles in the medial compartment of the thigh are not supplied by the obturator nerve?
Pectineus - Femoral nerve ---- Adductor magnus - Sciatic nerve and obturator nerve
What is the function of the medial compartment of the thigh? Which muscle is the exception to this rule and what does it do?
Adduction of the thigh. The Obturator externus laterally rotates the thigh.
What are the three muscles of the posterior compartment of the thigh?
Biceps femoris, Semitendinosus, Semimembranosus
What innervates the posterior compartment of the thigh?
Sciatic nerve
What are the actions of the posterior compartment of the thigh?
Extension of the hip and flexion of the knee
If someone sustains an avulsion fracture of semimembranosus which bone have they torn?
Ischial tuberosity
Where are the most likely places for avulsion fractures in the hips?
ASIS, AIIS, Ischial tuberosities and ischiopubic rami
What type of fracture is most likely to result in a compound fracture?
Fractures of the tibia
At what point is the tibia most likely to fracture? What else occurs at this point?
Junction of the middle and inferior thirds. There is poor blood supply.
What type of fracture would a skiing injury to the tibia cause?
Diagonal fracture
At what point on the fibula is it most likely to fracture? And what are they commonly associated with?
2-6cm proximal to the distal end of the lateral malleolus. Commonly associated with fracture-dislocation of the ankle joint.
What is a fracture-dislocation of the ankle joint?
When a person slips and the foot is forced into an excessively inverted position and the talus forcibly shears off the lateral malleolus.
What does the anterior cruciate ligament prevent?
The tibia moving anterior to the femur.
What does the posterior cruciate ligament prevent?
The tibia moving posterior to the femur.
Which ligament prevents lateral movement of the fibula?
The lateral collateral ligament
Which ligament prevents medial movement of the tibia?
The medial collateral ligament
What three structures are likely to rupture together?
Medial collateral ligament, medial meninscus and the ACL
Which nerve provides sensory fibres to the knee joint?
Femoral nerve
Which 3 neurovascular structures pass through the popliteal fossa posterior to the knee?
Popliteal artery and vein and tibial nerve
What would a fracture of the head of the fibula endanger?
The common fibula nerve as it wraps around the head of the fibula.
Which artery in the knee provides blood to the foot?
The popliteal
What are the 4 muscles in the anterior compartment of the leg?
Tibialis anterior, Extensor hallicus longus, Extensor digitorum longus and Fibularis tertius
What is the function of tibialis anterior?
Dorsiflexion of the ankle
What is the function of Fibularis tertius?
Dorsiflexion and eversion of the ankle
What is the nerve that innervates all the muscles of the anterior compartment of the leg?
Deep fibular nerve
What is the function of the lateral compartment of the leg and what are the 2 muscle in this compartment?
Eversion and Fibularis longus and brevis. Longus also plantarflexes the ankle.
Which compartment does the superficial fibular nerve supply?
The lateral compartment of the leg
What are the 3 superficial muscles of the posterior compartment of the leg?
Gastronemius, Plantaris and Soleus
What nerve innervates both the superficial and deep muscles of the posterior compartment of the leg?
The tibial nerve
What do the Popliteus, Flexor hallicus longus, Flexor digitorum longus and Tibialis posterior have in common?
They are all muscles of the posterior compartment of the leg. They are all supplied by the tibial nerve.
Which muscles are responsible for plantar flexion?
Gastrocnemius, Plantaris, Soleus, Tibialis posterior and Fibularis longus
What actions, other than plantar flexion, do gastrocnemius and plantaris perform?
Flexion of the knee
What is the role of popliteus?
Unlocks the knee
Other than plantarflexion what do tibialis posterior do?
What would compression of the common fibular nerve cause?
Presentation of foot drop, loss of sensation over the foot and lateral part of the leg. This is due to compromise of tibialis anterior.
What would pain over the base of the 5th metatarsal indicate, when combined with an inversion injury?
Rupture of fibularis brevis tendon
What passes through the tarsal tunnel?
Tibialis posterior, Flexor digitorum longus, Posterior tibial artery, veins, Tibial nerve, Flexor hallicus longus
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Which muscle group, Hamstrings or Quadriceps, is more likely to rupture?
Hamstrings are twice as likely.
If someone is stabbed in the bottom which nerve is at risk and what are the complications and prognosis of this injury?
The Sciatic nerve is at risk. This causes loss of all hip, knee, ankle and foot movement. The recovery from this is slow and usually incomplete.
Which nerve innervates most of the dorsum of the foot?
Superficial fibular
Which nerve innervates the lateral side of the foot?
The sural nerve
Which nerve innervates over the medial malleolus?
The saphenous nerve
Which nerve innervates the web between the 1st and 2nd toes?
Deep fibular
Which nerve innervates most of the plantar surface of the foot?
Medial plantar nerve
Which nerve innervates the heel?
Calcaneal branches from the tibial and sural nerves
Which nerve innervates the lateral side of the foot?
Lateral planter nerve