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111 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Acetylcholine
neurotransmitter chemical released at synapses of nerve cell
Afferent Nerves
carry messages toward the brain & spinal cord (sensory nerves)
Arachnoid Membrane
middle layer of the meninges that surround the brain & spinal cord
Astrocyte
a type of glial cell that transports water & salt from capillaries
Autonomic Nervous System
nerves that control involuntary body functions of muscles, glands, & internal organs
Axon
microscopic fiber that carries the nervous impulse along a nerve cell
Blood-Brain Barrier
blood vessels that selectively let certain substances enter the brain tissue & keep other substances out
Brainstem
lower portion of the brain that connects the cerebrum w/ the spinal cord
Cauda Equina
collection of spinal nerves below the end of the spinal cord
Cell Body
part of a nerve cell that contains the nucleus
CNS - Central Nervous System
brain & spinal cord
Cerebellum
posterior part of the brain that coordinates muscle movements & maintains balance
Cerebral Cortex
outer region of the cerebrum; containing sheets of nerve cells; gray matter of the brain
CSF - Cerebrospinal Fluid
fluid that circulates throughout the brain & spinal cord
Cerebrum
largest part of the brain; responsible for voluntary muscular activity, vision, speech, taste, hearing, thought, & memory
Cranial Nerves
12 pairs of nerves that carry messages to & from the brain
Dendrite
microscopic branching fiber of a nerve cell that is the first part to receive the nervous impulse
Dura Mater
thick, outermost layer of the meninges surrounding & protecting the brain & spinal cord
Efferent Nerves
carry messages away from the brain & spinal cord; motor nerves
Ependymal Cell
a glial cell that lines membranes w/in the brain & spinal cord & helps form CSF
Ganglion (plural: ganglia)
collection of nerve cell bodies in the PNS
Glial Cell (Neuroglial Cell)
cell in the nervous system that is supportive & connective in function
Gyrus (plural: gyri)
sheet of nerve cells that produces a rounded fold on the surface of the cerebellum; convolution
Hypothalamus
portion of the brain beneath the thalamus; controls sleep, appetite, body temp, & secretions from the pituitary gland
Medulla Oblongata
part of the brain just above the spinal cord; controls breathing, heartbeat, and the size of blood vessels; nerves fibers cross over here
Meninges
3 protective membranes that surround the brain & spinal cord
Microglial Cell
phagocytic glial cell that removes waste products from the CNS
Motor Nerves
carry messages away from the brain & spinal cord to muscles & organs; efferent nerves
Myelin Sheath
white fatty tissue that surrounds, & insulates the axon of a nerve cell; also speeds impulse conduction along axon
Nerve
macroscopic cordlike collection of fibers (axon & dendrites) that carry electrical impules
Neuron
nerve cell that carries impules throughout the body
Neurotransmitter
chemical messenger; stimulates or inhibits another cell
Oligodendroglial Cell
glial cell that forms the myelin sheath covering axons
Parasympathetic Nerves
involuntary, autonomic nerves that regulate normal body functions such as heart rate, breathing, & muscles of the gastrointestinal tract
Parenchyma
essential, distinguishing tissue of the nervous system; includes the brain & spinal cord
PNS - Peripheral Nervous System
nerves outside the brain & spinal cord; cranial, spinal, & autonomic nerves
Pia Mater
thin, delicate inner membrane of the meninges
Plexus (plural: plexuses)
large, interlacing network of nerves
Pons
part of the brain anterior to the cerebellum & between the medulla & the rest of the midbrain; bridge connecting various parts of the brain
Receptor
organ that receives a nervous stimulation & passes it on to nerves w/in the body examples; skin, ears, eyes, & taste buds
Sciatic Nerve
nerve extending from the base of the spine down the thigh, lower leg, & foot
Sensory Nerves
carry messages to the brain & spinal cord from a receptor; afferent nerves
Spinal Nerves
31 pairs of nerves arising from the spinal cord
Stimulus (plural: sulci)
agent of change (light, sound, touch) in the internal or external environment that evokes a response
Stroma
connective & supporting tissue of an organ; glial cells are the stromal tissue of the brain
Sulcus (plural: sulci)
depression or groove in the surface of the cerebral cortx; fissure
Sympathetic Nerves
autonomic nerves that influence bodily functions involuntarily in times of stress
Synapse
space through which a nervous impulse is transmitted from one neuron to another or from a neuron to another cell
Thalamus
main relay center of the brain; conducts impulses between the spinal cord & the cerebrum; incoming sensory messages are relayed through the thalamus to appropriate centers in the cerebrum
Vagus Nerve
10th cranial nerve; branches reach to the larynx, trachea, bronchi, lungs, aorta, esophagus, and stomach
Ventricles of the Brain
canals in the brain that contain CSF
cerebell/o
cerebellum
cerebr/o
cerebrum
dur/o
dura mater
encephal/o
brain
gli/o
glial cells
lept/o
thin, slender
mening/o
meningi/o
membranes, meninges
my/o
muscle
myel/o
spinal cord (means bone marrow in other contexts)
neur/o
nerve
pont/o
pons
radicul/o
nerve root (of spinal nerves)
thalam/o
thalamus
thec/o
sheath (refers to the meninges)
vag/o
vagus nerve (10th cranial nerve)
alges/o
excessive
-algesia
sensitivity to pain
-algia
pain
caus/o
burning
comat/o
deep sleep (coma)
esthesi/o
-esthesia
feeling, nervous
sensation
kines/o
kinesi/o
movement
-kinesia
-kinesis
-kinetic
movement
-lepsy
seizure
lex/o
word, pharse
-paresis
weakness
-phasia
speech
-plegia
paralysis (loss or impairment of the ability to move parts of the body)
-praxia
action
-sthenia
strength
syncop/o
to cut off, cut short
tax/o
order, coordination
Hydrocephalus
abnormal accumulation of CSF in the brain
Spina Bifida
congenital defects in the lumbar spinal column caused by imperfect union of vertebral parts (neural tube defect)
AD - Alzheimer Disease
brain disorder marked by gradual & progressive mental deterioration (dementia) w/ personality changes & impairment of daily functioning
ALS - Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis
degenerative disorder of motor neurons in the spinal cord & brainstem
Epilepsy
chronic brain disorder characterized by recurrent seizure activity
Huntington Disease
hereditary disorder marked by degenerative changes in the cerebrum leading to abrupt involuntary movements & mental deterioration
MS - Multiple Sclerosis
destruction of the myelin sheath on neurons in the CNS & its replacement by plaques of sclerotic tissue
MG - Myasthenia Gravis
autoimmune neuromuscular disorder characterized by weakness of voluntary muscles
Palsy
paralysis
Parkinson Disease
degeneration of neurons in the basal ganglia, occurring in later life & leading to tremors, weakness of muscles, & slowness of movement
Tourette Syndrome
involuntary, spasmodic, twitching movements; uncontrollable vocal sounds; & inappropriate words
Herpes Zoster (shingles)
viral infection affecting peripheral nerves
Meningitis
inflammation of the meninges
HIV - Human Immunodeficiency Virus Encephalopathy
brain disease & dementia occurring w/ AIDS
Brain Tumor
abnormal growth of brain tissue & meninges
Cerebral Concussion
temporary brain dysfunction after injury, usually clearing w/in 24 hours
Cerebral Contusion
bruising of brain tissue as a result of direct trauma to the head; neurologic deficits persist longer than 24 hours
CVA - cerebrovascular accident
disruption in the normal blood supply to the brain; stroke
CSF Analysis
samples of CSF are examined
Cerebral Angiography
x-ray imaging of the arterial blood vessel system in the brain after injection of contrast material
CT - Computed Tomography of the Brain
x-ray technique that generates computerized cross-sectional images of the brain & spinal cord
Myelography
x-ray imaging of the spinal canal after injection of contrast medium into the subarachnoid space
MRI - Magnetic Resonance Imaging of the Brain
magnetic & radio waves create an image of the brain in all 3 planes
PET - Positron Emission Tomography Scan
computerized radiologic technique using radioactive glucose to image the metabolic activity of cells
Doppler/Ultrasound Studies
sound waves detect blood flow in the carotid & intracranial arteries
EEG - Electroencephalography
recording of the electrical activity of the brain
LP - Lumbar Puncture
CSF is withdrawn from between 2 lumbar vertebrae
Stereotactic Radiosurgery
use of a specialized instrument to locate & treat targets in the brain