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23 Cards in this Set
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Abduction

aka "inference to the best explanation" is a category of reasoning subject to inductive criteria in which the conclusion is supposed to explain the truth of the premises.


Argument

a finite set of statements, some of whichthe premises are supposed to support, or give reasons for, the remaining statementthe conclusion.


Cogency

An argument is ___ if and only if it is inductively strong and all of the premises are true.


Deductive Validity

an argument (form) is ___ if and only if it is not possible for ALL the premises to be true and the conclusion false.


Inductive Strength

An argument is ___ to the degree to which the premises provide evidence to make the truth of the conclusion plausible or probable.


Logic

the study of (i) criteria for distinguishing successful from unsuccessful arguments (ii) methods for applying those criteria, and (iii) related properties of statements such as implication, equivalence, logical truth, consistency etc


Soundness

An argument is ___ if and only if it is deductively valid AND all of its premises are true.


Statement

a declarative sentence which attempts to state a fact


Truth Value

the ___ of a statement is just its truth or falsehood. Can be either true or false but not both.


Argument form

(Schema) is the framework of an argument which results when certain portions of the component statements are replaced by blanks, schematic letters, or other symbols.


Argument instance

what results when you appropriately fill in the blanks of an argument form/schema


Metalanguage

when one is talking about a language, this is the language in which one is talking about the object language


Object language

when one is talking about language, this is the language being talked about


Truth Functional Entailment

A set (gamma) of WFFs of S truth functionally entails a WFF P iff there is no truth value assignment on which all the members of gamma are true and P is false.


Truth Functionally Consistent Set of Wffs

A set (gamma) of WFFs of S is TFly consistent iff there is at least one tva on which all members of gamma are true.


Truth Functionally Satisfiable WFF

iff P is not truth functionally false. There is at least one True tva


Truth Functionally Contingent WFF

iff P is neither truth functionally true nor truth functionally false. False on at least one tva and true on at least one tva.


Truth Functionally Contradictory Pairs of WFFs

iff there is no tva on which they have the same truth value


Truth Functionally Equivalent pairs

iff there is no tva on which they differ in truth value


Truth Functionaly false WFF

false on every tva


Truth Functionally Falsifiable

iff P is not truth functionally true


Truth Functionally Valid

iff there is no truth value assignment on which all the premises are true and the conclusion false.


Truth Functionally True WFF

iff P is true on every truth value assignment
