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40 Cards in this Set

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Allegory

A form of extended metaphor in which objects and persons in a narrative, either in prose or verse, are equated with meanings that lie outside the narrative itself

Alliteration

The recurrence of initial consonant sounds. The repetition is usually limited to two words.

Allusion

A casual and brief reference to a famous historical or literary figure or event

Anadiplosis

A rhetorical trope formed by repeating the last word of one phrase, clause, or sentence at or very near the beginning of the next

Analogy

The comparison of two things, which are alike in several respects, for the purpose of explaining or clarifying some unfamiliar or difficult idea or object by showing how the idea or object is similar to some familiar one

Anaphora

The repetition of the same word or words at the beginning of successive phrases, clauses, or sentences, commonly in conjunction with climax and parallelism.

Antithesis

Establishing a clear, contrasting relationship between two ideas by joining them together or juxtaposing them, often in parallel structure.

Apostrophe

The direct address of a person or personified thing either present or absent. Usually to portray intense emotion which can no longer be held back. Hint: uses O at the start.

Assonance

The use of similar vowel sounds repeated in successive or proximate words containing different consonants

Chiasmus

A crossing parallelism, where the second part of a grammatical construction is balanced or paralleled by the first part, only in reverse order.


AB BA

Conceit

An elaborate, usually intellectually ingenious poetic comparison or image, such as an analogy or metaphor in which, say a beloved is compared to a ship, planet, etc.

Epistrophe

The repetition of the same word or words at the end of successive phrases, clauses or sentences. The counterpart of Anaphora.

Euphemism

The substitution of a mild or less negative word or phrase for a harsh or blunt one.

Hyperbole

Exaggeration used for emphasis

Irony

A mode of expression, through words or events, conveying a reality different from and usually opposite to apearence or expectation

Metaphor

A comparison which imaginatively identifies one thing with another dissimilar thing, and transfers or ascribes to the first thing some qualities of the second

Metonymy

Another form of metaphor, in which a closely associated object is substituted for the object or idea in mind (The orders cam directly from the White House)

Onomatopoeia

The use of words which in their pronunciation suggest their meaning (Hiss, bang, whirr)

Oxymoron

A paradox reduced to two words used for effect, to emphasize contrasts

Personification

The metaphorical representation of an animal or inanimate object as having human attributes

Sarcasm

A form of verbal irony, expressing sneering, personal disapproval in the guise of praise

Satire

A manner of writing that mixes a critical attitude with wit and humor in an effort to improve mankind and human institutions

Simile

A direct, expressed comparison between two things essentially unlike each other, but resembling each other in at least one way using like or as

Synecdoche

A from of metaphor in which the part stands for the whole, the whole for a part, etc (head of cattle, hired hands)

Tone

The writer's attitude toward his readers and his subject; his mood or moral view

Understatement

Expressing an idea with less emphasis or in a lesser degree than ins the actual case. Opposite of hyperbole

Zeugma

Any of several similar rhetorical devices, all involving a grammatically correct linkage or two or more parts of speech by another part of speech. (a subject with two or more verbs, vice versa)

Aphorism

A concise statement of a principle; or a terse formulation of a truth or sentiment

Ellipsis

Omission of one or more words, which must be supplied by the audience

Enthymeme

A syllogism with one part of the argument missing.

Syllepsis

A type of zeugma in which a single word, usually a verb or adjective, agrees grammatically with two or more other words, but semantically with only one.

Syllogism

A method of presenting a logical argument

Tautology

The unnecessary and excessive repitition of the same idea in different words in the same sentence

Subjunctive mood

A verb's mood which indicates whether it is being used to express a fact, command, or wish

Ad Hominem

An attack on the author or speaker to discredit their argument (means "Against Man")

Red Herring

An irrelevant topic presented in order to divert attention from the original issue

Slippery Slope

An assertion that some event must inevitably follow from another with out any argument for the inevitability of the event in question.

Post hoc

Assuming that because B comes after A, A caused B, while this is not always true (also called "False Cause")

False Dilemma

A limited number of options (usually 2) is given, while in reality there are more optioins

Non Sequitur

Something that just doesn't follow