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24 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Which elements do lipids contain?

Carbon, hydrogen, oxygen
Are lipids polar or non-polar?

Non-polar, insoluble in water so dissolve in other organic solvents)

What are triglycerides?

Combination of on GLYCEROL molecule and 3 FATTY ACID molecules

What changes when a triglyceride is formed?

Glycerol remains the same, fatty acids change

How is a fatty acid formed?

Which reaction allows fatty acids and glycerol to join?

Condensation reaction,

What are the bonds within a triglyceride called?

Ester Bonds (between glycerol and fatty acids)

What is a phospholipid?

A special type of lipid
Which is the hydrophilic end of a phospholipid?

Polar Head; interacts with water, lots of O atoms so interacts, glycerol head

Which is the hydrophobic end of a phospholipid?
Non-polar tails, doesn't interact with water, no O atoms so cant interact
What is the structure of a phospholipid?

What are waxes?

Lipids, 45 degrees, waterproofing role

E.g plants (leaf's cuticle), animals (insects exoskeleton)

What are the properties of a saturated lipid?

~Single C-C bond

~all carbons linked to maximum hydrogen bonds

~Straight zig-zag

~Molecules readily align= SOLID

~Remain solid at body temp., useful in storage of mammals

~Animal lipids contain saturated fatty acids

What are the properties of an unsaturated lipid?

~Double C=C bond

~Chain gets a kink

~Can't align properly, don't solidify

~Plant lipids: oils, unsaturated

~1C=C bond present= Mono-unsaturated

~more than 1C=C bond= Poly-unsaturated

What are the roles of phospholipids?

=Biological membranes

=Electrical insulation (myelin sheath on axons)

What are the roles of triglycerides?

=Energy reserves in plants/animals

=Thermal insulation; stored under skins, insulate against heat loss and heat gain

=Protection: fat stored around delicate organs protects from physical damage

=Metabolic water; produces a lot

What is the test for fats and oils?


*sample tested is mixed with ETHANOL

*dissolves lipids present

*Shaken with volume of water

*Dissolved lipids come out (INSOLUBLE)

* Form an emulsion (makes cloudy white sample)

What are globular proteins?


~spherical molecules

~makes soluble in water

~many different functions

~Haemoglobin: consists of 4 folded polypeptide chains, centre of each is an iron-containing group (HAEM group)

What are fibrous proteins?

~long, thin molecules

~shape= insoluble in water, (structural function)

~in parallel structures, chains and sheets

~strong and tough

~cross-linkages; forms LONG fibres (keratin)

~e.g COLLAGEN; provides strength and toughness, needed in TENDONS

~single fibre (tropocollagen), consists of 3 POLYPEPTIDE chains TWISTEd AROUND EACH OTHER, linked with hydrogen bonds, very STABLE

What is the primary structure of proteins?

~order of linear amino acids

~up to 20 different types of amino acids

~joined in any number; different combinations

~determined by base sequence; one strand of the DNA

What is the secondary structure of proteins?

~shape formed due to hydrogen bonding between O of -CO groups, -H of -NH groups

~peptide bonds formed

~causes to be twisted into 3D shape (alpha helix)

~hydrogen bonds included

What is the tertiary structure of proteins?

~can be folded and twisted


~shape maintained by:

Hydrogen bonds

Ionic bonds

Disulfide bonds

Hydrophobic interactions

=globular proteins in structure

What is the quaternary structure?

~polypeptides in combination
~combine with other polypeptide chains

~(insulin=2 chains)

~non-protein groups & form large, complex molecules (e.g haemoglobin)

What is the health risk of saturated fats?

-Heart Disease: cause= fatty deposits in coronary arteries & high blood pressure

-Food absorbed in SMALL INTESTINE; lipids and proteins make LIPOPROTEINS (travel in blood)

~High in saturated, LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEIN, build up and cause harm' ATHEROMA, gets deposited in arteries, restricts blood flow & O2 delivery to heart (Angina/Heart Attack)