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49 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Dummy subject
ex. it, there

-place holders that have no meaning by acts as the subject

"It is raining. There was thunder."
Coupula
ex. be

- links a subject and a verb

"He is tall. The door is brown."
Auxillary
ex. might, will

- special kind of verb used to describe specific conditions -- tense, possibility, question negation

"He may fall. He will fall."
Non-declarative
a non-delcaring sentence

"Are you going to the store?"
Determiner
ex. some, more, much, a, the

not considered adjectives by come before nouns
Presupposition
something you infer when you make the statement as a speaker

"Debora has a cute cat."

-presupposition: debora has a cat
What is the presupposition in the sentence: "Mary's brother bought an apartment."
presupposition: Mary has a brother.
Entailment
what is happening in the sentence

"Someone cheated on the exam."
"John cheated on the exam."

John-sentence entails the other -- if John cheated on the exam then someone cheated on the exam, but if someone cheated on the exam, John did not necessarily cheat on the exam.
in the sentences:

"Someone is singing." and "Suzie is singing."

Which sentence is doing the entailing?
The Suzie-sentence is entailing the other. Suzie is singing entails someone is singing BUT someone is singing does not entail that suzie is.
object controlled sentence
the object of the sentence is doing the action

"Bob persuaded MIKE to clean the submarine" -- mike is cleaning
subject controlled sentence
the subject of the sentence is doing the aciton

"BOB promised Mike to clean the submarine" -- bob is cleaning
Descriptive grammar
has as its goal to describe what the native speakers of a language do (verbally) when they speak their language (the meaning of the word grammar as used in this course).
Prescriptive grammar
categorizes certain language uses as
acceptable or unacceptable according to a standard
form of the language (the meaning of ‘grammar’ normally intended in English classes)
whats and example of the statement: "One language’s standard is another language’s substandard."
french and english negation rules

French standard: double negation
english standard: single negation
what is the "friggin-inifxation" rule
Friggin can be inserted only before a stressed syllable

examples:
-fan-friggin-TAS-tic
fd
df
what does LAD stand for? And what is it?
language acquisition device. The way that we acquire language is and "instinct" meaning that
Do we acquire language the same way that we acquire other abilities such
as walking, 3-D vision?
yes, instinct.
In a child, the LAD actively constructs an (unconscious) system of rules from the linguistic input the child receives. What is this called?
mental grammar.
true or false. The LAD-determined
features form a universal grammar?
True.
structural ambiguity vs lexical ambiguitiy
structural ambiguity gives multiple meanings to one sentence where as lexical ambiguity means that one word has multiple meanings
what does phrase structure grammar show?
-specify grammatical categories
A grammar is finite, the number of possible sentences is infinite. What are the sources of infinity?
coordination, recursion
What is a binding principal C?
If a pronoun and a full NP (Lugar, the senator ) corefer, the full NP must not be contained in a sister constituent of the pronoun
Words
hard to define; roughly: the smallest parts that syntax can manipulate
Listemes
any structure — simple, or morphologically or syntactically complex — whose meaning or other
formal properties are not predictable
Morphemes
the smallest meaning-bearing elements of a language
right-hand-head-rule
the head is the farthest right element in a complex word--ie suffixes
u shaped development
1. Children start by uttering correct forms (e.g. went, cried ).
Code-Switching (CS)
the juxtaposition within the same speech exchange of passages of speech belonging to two different grammatical systems or subsystems
Code-Switching is not arbitrary but rule governed. True or false
true! If people have intuitions about the grammaticality of CS utterances, they must have a rule system in their mind disciminating grammatical and ungrammatical utterances. Grammatical judgments internal grammar competence
Vowels are classified by. . .
-How high the tongue is in the mouth
aspiration
voiceless oral stops are aspirated before vowels when at the beginning of a syllable
Final Devoicing
oral stops and fricatives are voiceless in syllable-final position
what do phonological rules account for in sound?
phonological rules account for regularities in languages sounds;
they relate an underlying form to a surface form in certain environments; these regularities are language specific; accordingly, so are phonological rules
how do infants learn language?
0-6 mo. - universal listeners

6-12 mo. - language specific listeners
How do babies segment?
listening to the rhythm of speech

-english 2-syllable words have Ss
and french have sS

used headturn preference procedure (HPP)
within the first year of an infants life, the speech perception system becomes turned into the infants native language. what does this do to the ability to process other languages?
the ability for the infant to process other languages diminishes
Sign languages are.. universal. true or false
false
Sign languages are.. manual codes for spoken language. true or false
false
Sign languages are.. elaborate systems of pantomime or gesture. true or false
false
Sign languages are.. visiual-spatial languages used by the deaf, as well as many hearing children born to deaf parents. true or false
true
Sign languages are.. the most natural means for the deaf to communicate. true or false
true
Sign languages are.. fully developed human languages, with all the same complexities of spoken language. true or false
true
what are the four parameters of signing? (like classifications of sounds)
-handshape
-palm orientation
-movement
-location
one example of modality in SL in reference to affixation
nonconcatenative morphology: instead of adding affixes to words, SL changes the root itself
language is processed in which hemisphere?
left
what does right hemi damage cause?
impaired spatial processing but intact use of space in sign
what two elements are combined to make a statement?
the argument and the predicate