Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key


Play button


Play button




Click to flip

26 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back


- Attributinghuman characteristics to non-human thingsBiases us toanimals actual abilitiesIs incrediblycommonplace, in both ancient and modern culture worldwide


The faculty ofthe mind to process informationMind-bodyproblem; how do we reconcile an abstract idea with reality?Science: we useabstract notions to explain the world around usNot really aproblem, but a matter of unifying theories


The faculty ofthe mind that manipulates a discrete combinatorial system + recursion dealingwith visual/auditory input/output

It is innate

Universal Grammar

the mechanism inthe mind that ALLOWS for all humans to acquire language

Prescriptive Grammar

what you are taught in school

Descriptive Grammar

What you actually produce


engineering for languages


study of language structure


study of meaning


study of sound (abstract representations)


study of sound (physical)

Theory of Mind

Attributemental states to ourselves while understanding others can do this as well

Scientific Method

Hypothesis-data collection-experimentation analysis-theory

A philosophy ofacquiring new knowledge

What purpose do myths serve?

Didacticfunction – story used to teach some concept; reveals what is important to thatcultureMythology adaptsto the times

Creation of Myths and commonalities

Golden age +humans mess up + punishment +animals are godlikeCheyenne,Sumerian, Judeo-Christian, etc.


The ability toexperience something

Commonalities of Myths

Lack of science– lack of information at the timeDefine socialbehaviors: how to treat humans/animalsRationalizationof self-interestsBlame outside ofthe individualThe humanexperience

The origins of language

languageis something “external” rather than “internal”

Being a good scientist

The scientificmethodValidhypothesis: replicable and falsifiableBiases:confirmation bias, reification fallacy, myth/folklore bias


The main lobes:frontal, occipital, parietal, temporalCerebral cortex:16 billion neurons, outermost layer, human rich/animal poor

Language Origins

maladaptiveevolution of larynx, pairing of sounds with emotions

Learned vs innate

Case Study Bees

Waggledance: calculate angle of the sun and distance to flower

Quality of fooddetermined by intensity of dance

The Piraha

Some claims: innumerate language, no colorterms, no recursion, finite language, no creation myths/stories/art, no kinshipterms beyong nuclear family, etc

Numbers and Counting

Ability sharedamongst humans and several animals


attend toobject, categorize object, represent symbolically


ability torapidly create count judgments