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73 Cards in this Set

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the Father of Vocational Guidance, wrote the book Choosing a Vocation
Vocational Guidance
is seen as developmental and educational process within the school system
career counseling
therapeutic service for adults performed outside of an educational setting
the total work one does in a lifetime plus leisure
the time one has away from work which is not being utilized for obligations
dual career families...
have less leisure time
trait and factor approach
actuarial or matching approach, attempts to match the worker and the work environment, assuming that there is one best or single career for the person. theory says that an individuals traits can be matched so a career choice is a one time process, testing is an important part of this process.
trait and factor approach was coined by....
Parsons and Williamson
Edmund Griffith Williamson
used the Minnesota Occupational Rating Scale for a scientific, didactic approach
Trait and factor does NOT
take into consideration the changes throughout the life span
Anne Roe
personality approach to career choice based on the premise that a job satisfies an unconscious need, career choice influenced by genetics, parent child interaction, unconscious motivators, current needs, inters, education and intelligence
Fields and Levels approach, 8 fields, 6 levels
Anne Roe
service, business contact, organizations, technology, outdoor, science, general culture and arts/entertainment
professional and managerial 1, profession al and managerial 2, semiprofessional/small business, skilled, semi skilled, and unskilled
Roe's parenting styles
overprotective, avoidant, acceptant...these impact whether or not a child gravitates toward people or away from people, impacting career choice.
felt that career choices could be used to solve unconscious conflicts, felt that difficulties related to job choice were indicative of neurotic symptoms
emphasized sublimation as an ego defense mechanism...example a person who likes to cut things up might be a surgeon or a butcher
John Holland
the most popular approach to career choice today, 4 assumptions: 6 personality types, work environments correspond to those, people search for agreeable environments, behavior is determined by personality and environment
Holland's 6 basic personality types
artistic, social, realistic, investigative, conventional, enterprising
Structural/Personality Theorists (3)
Roe, Britt and Holland
Social personality type
likes to solve problems using interpersonal skills and feelings
enterprising personality
likes to sell to other or perform leadership tasks, values power and status
realistic or motoristic personality
likes machines
investigative personality
likes to think his or her way through problems
artistic personality
values feelings or pure intellect or cognitive ability
conventional personality
values conformity, structure, rules and feels comfortable in a subordinate role
Holland believed...
that a given occupation will attract persons with similar personalities.
Henry Murry is associated with the
"Needs-press" theory
Ginzburg, Ginsburg, Axelrad and Herma were
pioneers in the area of career choice with the belief that it was a longitudinal process rather than a single choice
Ginzburg and colleagues believed
1) the process of career choice does not end in adulthood 2) career choices are made throughout the lifespan 3)career choice is reversible
Ginzburg's 3 stages of career development
1)fantasy (birth to 11)
2)tentative (11-17)
3) realistic (age 17- early 20's)
Donald Super
most popular developmental career theorist who emphasized self concept
Super's 5 stages of career development
1)Growth (birth to 14)
2)Exploration (15-24)
3)Establishment (24-44)
4)Maintenance (44-64)
5)Decline (65+)
life-career rainbow
the graphic display of the roles of our lives unfolding over the life span (SUPER)
the places where our roles are played out such a home , community, school, work (SUPER)
John Crites
he performed research on career maturity or vocational maturity
Tiedman and O'Hara
coined the "decision making theory" which refers to periods of anticipation and implementation/adjustment
John Krumboltz
postulated a social learning approach to career choice based on the work of Bandura, behavioristic model, might suggest a site visit to a work setting
realistic job preview by contacting and interviewing someone in the field of choice
guided imagery
to imagine a day in the field of choice
Gelatt Decision Model
created by Harry B. Gelatt refers to information as the "fuel of the decision"
Gelatt Model's 3 systems
predictive system
alternatives and the probability of outcomes
value system
concerned with one's relative preferences regarding the outcomes
decision system
provides rules and criteria for evaluating the outcome
Linda Gottfredson's developmental theory focuses on....
circumscription and compromise theory says that people restrict their choices and when they compromise they sacrifice the field of work
Dictionary of Occupational Titles was ....
first published in 1939, gives each title a 9 digit code, with the first 3 digits referring to the occupational group.
GOE (Guide for Occupational Exploration) has ....
14 interest areas and helps job seekers explore jobs in given interest areas
self efficacy theory
Bandura proposed that one's belief of expectation of being successful in an occupation cause them to gravitate toward that particular occupation.
compensatory effect
a worker compensates or makes up for things that they can't do on the job (a loud librarian)
a worker's job spills over into their time off
recency effect
when a rater's judgment of an employee reflects primarily his or her most recent performance
central tendency bias
when a rater keeps most everyone in the average range
a broad tem that includes work, leisure and style of living
Self directed search (SDS) is....
based on the work of Holland, self administered, self score and self interpreted
sedentary work
maximum lifting up to 10 pounds
light work
max lift 20 pounds
medium work
max lift 50 lbs
heavy work
max lift 100 lbs
very heavy work
max lift exceeds 100lbs
76% of jobs
are not advertised
SDS scores will reveal
the individual's three highest scores based on Holland's personality types
Holland's graphical representation is in the shape of
a hexagon
2 Interest inventorie
the Strong and the Kuder
General Aptitude Test Battery is utilized by the state employment security offices.
Differential Aptitude Test helps students decide whether a student should attend college
Armed Services Vocational Aptitud
Occupational Sex Segregation concept
means that most women hold low paying jobs with low status
System Interactive Guidance and Information is a computer career program that allows students to conduct a self assessment and explore career options
Job finding clubs
are behavioristic groups were clients share job leads and working on skills to secure work such as resumes and interviews
says that we should find a job to fit our needs
well known for his CMI or Career Maturity Inventory
Career testing difficulties include
stereotyping, biased tests in favor of white middle class clients and the counselor may rely too heavily on the tests.