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73 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What is normal birth weight for infants?
Between 3.0 and 3.5 kg
The head is equal to what percent of an infants total body weight?
Why must the first breath taken by an infant be forceful?
Because until the first breath, an infants lungs are collapsed
What is the chemical in an infants lungs that reduces surface tension making breating for the first time easier?
True or false: An infants airway is less easily obstructed than an adults because it is more shorter and narrower.
False. An infants airway is shorter, but it is also more narrow and less stable. An infants airway is more easily obstructed than at any other stage of life.
Until at least 4 weeks, babies are "_________ breathers."
nose; Because infants are nose breathers, a slight obstruction, often due to a viral respiratory infection, can cause difficulty breathing, sepecially during feeding.
Define barotrauma
An injury caused by a change in atmospheric pressure
Prehospital personnel must be careful when applying mechanical ventilation with a BVM because infants lungs are fragile and prone to _______________.
In infants, breathing becomes ineffective at rates of higher than ____ breaths per minute because the air moves only in the upper airway, never reaching the lungs.
Rapid respiratory rates lead to rapid ________ and ___________ loss.
heat, fluid
When assessing the RR of an infant you should observe what?
The rise and fall of the abdomen
An infant needs _______ pressure and a __________ volume of air for ventilation than an adult.
less, lower
Infants have a ____________ metabolic rate and a _____________ oxygen-consumption rate than an adult.
higher, higher
True or false: Babies can easily become dehydrated and develop a water and electrolyte imbalance because their kidneys are not able to produce concentrated urine.
A fetus is said to have ______________ __________________, which may remain effective for 6-12 months after birth, because of the antibodies that pass from mother to child prior to birth and through breast feeding.
passive immunities
Because of life-sustaining function and protective reflexes, an infant has strong, coordinated ______________ and ________ reflexes.
sucking, gag
Define moro reflex
A reflex that occurs when a newborn is startled, arms are thrown wide, fingers spread, and a grabbing motion follows. Also called the startle reflex.
An asymmetric Moro reflex may indicate what?
Paralysis or weakness of one side of the body
Define palmar grasp
A reflex in the newborn, which is elicited by placing a finger firmly in the infant's palm.
Define rooting reflex
An infant that is hungry will turn his head if his cheek is touched with a hand or cloth.
Define sucking reflex
A sucking movement caused by an infant's lips being stroked.
What is the purpose of fontanelles?
They allow for compression of the head during childbirth and rapid growth of the brain during early life.
The posterior fontanelle usually closes in ____ or ____ months, and the anterior one closes between ____ and ____ months.
2, 3, 9, 18
What may provide an indirect estimate of an infants hydration?
The fontanells, especiall the anterior one. It is usually level with the surface of the skull, or slightly sunken. With dehydration, the fontanell may fall below the level of the skull and appear sunken
A newborn usually sleeps how many hours in a 24 hour period?
Usually 16-18
Muscle weight is about _______ of the entire musculoskeletal system.
What are six factors that affect bone development and growth?
Exposure to sunlight
Growth hormone
Thyroid hormone
Genetic factors
General health
Infants are generally how old before they begin to track objects with their eyes and recognize familiar faces?
2 months
Teeth begin to appear between ____ and _____ months of age.
5, 7
How old is an infant generally when he is able to respond to adult anger?
9 months
What is a newborns sole means of communication?
Define bonding
The formation of a close personal relationship
Define secure attachment
A type of bonding that occurs when an infant learns that his caregivers are responsive and helpful when needed.
Define anxious resistant attachment
A type of bonding that offurs when an infant learns to be uncertain about wheter or not his caregivers will be responsive or helpful when needed.
Define anxious aviodent attachment
A type of bonding that occurs when an infant learns his caregivers wiil not be responsive to helpful when needed.
Define trust vs. mistrust
A stage of psychological development that lasts from birth to about 18 months.
Define scaffolding
A reaching/learning technique in which one builds on what had already been learned.
Define an easy child
An infant, who can be characterized by regularity of bodily functions, low or moderate intensity of reactions, and acceptance of new situations.
Define a difficult child
An infant who can be characterized by irregularity of bodily functions, intense reactions, and withdrawl from new situations.
Define a slow-to-warm-up child
An infant who can be characterized by a low intensity of reactions and a somewhat negative mood.
What is the heart rate range for toddlers?
What is the respiratoy rate range for toddlers?
At what stage of development do the hemolobin levels begin to approach normal adult levels?
Toddler and preschool age
True or false: Children are able to withstand rapid breathing longer than adults becuase they are used to breathing faster.
False. Children chest muscles are immature and tire quickly resulting in a derease in respirations, indicating the onset of ventilatory failure.
During the toddler years, the brain is now at ____% of adult weight.
At what age does hearing reach maturity?
3-4 y/o
What is the average age for completion of toilet training?
28 months
Between the ages of ____ and ____ children have mastered the basics of language.
3, 4
The average infant gailns how much weight per day?
30 grams
The average toddler or preschooler gains how much weight per year?
2 kg
Between the ages of 18-24 months children begin to understand __________ and _____________ and develop separation anxiety.
cause, effect
At what age do children develop "magical thinking"?
Between 24 and 36 months
What are the three basic styles of parenting?
What age group begins to develop self-concept and self-esteem?
School age
What are the three levels of moral development?
Define pre-conventional reasoning
The stage of moral developmet during which children respond mainly to cultural control to aviod punishment and attain satisfaction. They obey in order to avoid punishment.
Define conventional reasoning
The stage of moral development during which children desire approval from individuals and society.
Define post-conventional reasoning
The stage of moral development during which individuals make moral decisions according to an enlightened conscience.
Girls are usually finished growing by age ____ and boys are usually done by ____.
16, 18
At what stage in development do both males and females reach reproductive maturity?
During adolescence, muscle mass and bone growth are
A. Complete
B. Nearly complete
C. Not complete
B. Nearly complete
Females require ______ to ______% body fat in order for menarche to occur.
A. 10, 14
B. 16, 18
C. 18, 20
D. Not based on amount of body fat.
C. 18, 20
Depression and suicide are more common during _________________ than in any other age group.
A. Adolescence
B. Early adulthood
C. Middle adulthood
D. Late adulthood
A. Adolescence
Peak physical condition occurs between the ages of ____ and ____, when all body systems are at optimal performance levels.
19, 26
What is the leading cause of death in early adulthood?
The highest levels of joj stress occur at what stage in life?
Early adulthood
In middle adulthood, cardiovascular health becomes a concern because cardiac output ______________ and _______________ increases.
decreases, cholesterol
Define maximum life span
The theoretical, species-specific, longest duration of life, excluding premature or "unnatural" death.
Define life expectancy
Based on the year of birth, the average number of additional years of life expected for a member of a population.
What will happen to vital signs in people 61 and older?
It will vary based on the individuals physical health.
During late adulthood, the walls of the blood vessels thicken, causing ________________ periphreal vascular resistance and ________________ blood flow to the organs.
increased, decreased
By age 80 there is approximately a ____% decrease in vessel elacticity.
Functional blood volume ________________ in late adulthood.