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42 Cards in this Set

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  • Back

What does metabolism mean?

Metabolism is the total of all chemical activities of an organism that enable it to stay alive, grow, and reproduce.

What is a producer?

Producers are organisms that make their own food. They are also called autotrophs.

What are consumers?

Consumers are organisms that can't make their own food. Also called heterotrophs.

What is photosynthesis?

The change in light energy into chemical energy. During photosynthesis, the energy from sunlight is used to make a sugar from carbon dioxide and water.

What is the formula for photosynthesis?

6CO2+6H2O+sunlight in the presence of chlorophyll makes C6, H12, O6,+ 6O2.

What is the formula for respiration?

C6,H12,O6+ 6O2 in the presence of chlorophyll = 6CO+6H2O+energy

What is fermentation?

Fermentation is a form of respiration that converts energy from glucose when oxygen is insufficient.

What is the formula for lactic acid fermentation?

C6H12O6 in the presence of enzymes 2C3H6O3

What is the formula for alchoholic fermentation?

C6H12O6 in the presence of yeast 2CO2+2C2H5OH

What plant pigment is necessary for photosynthesis to take place?


Where does cellular respiration take place?

The mitochondria.

In the light reaction phase of photosynthesis, water molecules are "split" and what is released?


In the dark reaction phase of photosynthesis, what is carbon dioxide "fixed" into?

Carbon dioxide.

What substances needed for a plant to carry out photosynthesis?

Water and carbon dioxide.

What visible light spectrum do most plants reflect?


What is respiration that does not require oxygen said to be?


In respiration, which compound is chemically broken down to produce water, carbon dioxide, and energy?


What is an atom?

Matter exists in small units called atoms.

What is an element?

When something is made up of only one kind of element.

What is a molecule?

A group of atoms bonded together, representing the smallest fundamental unit of a chemical compound that can take part in chemical reaction.

What is a compound?

When elements combine chemically to form new substances.

What are the four different classes of organic compounds?

Carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids.

What are organic compounds function in the cell?

Carbohydrates are used by breaking down to release energy, lipids are used to store and release larger amounts of energy, protein is used to build cell parts, and nucleic acid is used to carry hereditary information.

What is an inorganic compound?

Inorganic compounds are made from elements other than carbon.

What are the elements that make up organic compounds?

carbon, hydrogen, oxygen

Which elements are most common in the human body?

Oxygen and carbon.

What is covalent bond?

A chemical bond that involves the sharing of electron pairs between atoms. The balance of attractive and repulsive forces is known as a covalent bond.

What is an ionic bond?

A chemical bond formed between two ions with opposite charges.

What is a solution?

A solution is a mixture of in which one or more substances mix evenly with other substances.

What is a suspension?

A mixture in which substances are evenly spread through a liquid or gas.

What is a colloid?

A substance consisting of large molecules or microscopic particles of one substance dispersed through a second substance. The particles do not settle and cannot be separated by ordinary filtering.

What does a selectively permeable membrane do?

It allows some materials to pass through while keeping others out.

What is diffusion?

The net movement of molecules from an area where there are many to an area where there are few.

What is osmosis?

The diffusion of water across a cell membrane.

What is passive transport and what is and example of it?

The cell uses no energy to move the materials. An example of this is diffusion.

What is active transport?

The cell uses energy to move materials.

What is biomass?

Organic materials from plants or animals that is used for energy.

What is gasohol?

It is a mixture of gasoline and ethanol.

What are some useful biomass materials?

Firewood, charcoal, animal dung, and peat.

What is biogas?

A mixture of gases that can be stored and transported like natural gas.

What is an advantage of using biomass?

It reduces independence on fossil fuel, reduces waste disposal problem, biomass does not pollute the atmosphere with carbon dioxide as long as the plant matter burned equals the plant matter produced each year, and it has a high net energy efficiency when it is collected and burned close to the source of production.

What are some disadvantages of using biomass?

Plant production requires land and water so the use of land for energy crops competes with the growing of food crops. Improper management of croplands could lead to soil erosion, sedimentation, destruction of reservoirs, and flooding. Removing crop and forestry wastes may reduce soil nutrients.