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46 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back

How is RNA different from DNA?

RNA contains ribose where DNA contains deoxyribose

Organisms that do not have a nucleus in their cells are called


Which cellular structures/molecules are found in ALL cells (pro and euk)

plasma membrane, cytosol, ribosomes, DNA

Which of the following are present in prokaryotic cells?

a) nucleus

b) chloroplast

c) ribosomes

d) endoplasmic reticulum


Which structures separate neighboring cells, as well as separating compartments within cells?

membranes, consisting of the phospholipid bilayer

Which of the following macromolecules leaves the nucleus of a euk cell through pores in the nuclear membrane


What cellular structures are ALL part of the endomembrane system?

nuclear envelope, lyosome, plasma membrane

What does the gogli apparatus do?

modifies proteins and ships them in vesicles to a variety of locations throughout the cell

Which free-living prokar was engulfed by another cell?

mitochondrion and chloroplast

What organelles contain DNA

the nucleus, chloroplast, mitochondria

What structure in animal cells have a function similar to that of plasmodesmata in plant cells

gap junctions

which structures are unique to plant cells?

large central vacuole, chloroplast

According to the fluid mosaic model, the membrane of phospholipids can..

move laterally along the plane of the membrane

Diffusion is the...

passive process in which molecules move from a region of high concentration to an area of low concentration

Being selectively permeability means

only certain molecules can pass through cell membrane

Solution A is hypotonic to solution B, means that..

solution a has a lower concentration of dissolved solutes than solution B

In osmosis

water moves across the membrane from an area of low concentration to areas of higher solute concentration

the energy source for active transport is ____, while the force driving simple diffusion is ____

ATP; the concentration gradient

What is membrane potential?

a voltage difference across a membrane due to unequal distribution of charged solutes

What is the First Law of Thermodynamics

energy can be transformed into other forms of energy, but energy cannot be created or destroyed

What molecule connects anabolism and catabolism in cells by storing energy from catabolic reactions and providing that energy to anabolic reactions


What is the active site of an enzyme?

the place not he enzyme where the substrate binds


release energy



require energy


What is the purpose of competitive inhibition

When it fits in the activation site and blocks it


loses electrons


gain electrons

What happens in glycolysis

glucose is split into two pyruvate molecules, creating 2NADH and 2 ATP

What does the electron transport chain do?

extracts energy from high-energy electrons remaining from glycolysis

High energy foods have a lot of what

electrons associated with hydrogen

Describe the flow of electrons during aerobic cellular respiration

glucose->NADH->electron transport chain -> oxygen

How is fat released from your body?

through CO2 and H2O

What is the relationship between cellular respiration and photosynthesis?

photosynthesis stores energy in complex organic molecules; respiration releases energy from complex organic molecules

The O2 that comes from CO2 in photosynthesis comes from what?


Why does photosynthesis require light?

light excites electrons in pigments, and these high energy electrons are used later to reduce CO2, forming sugars

What products of light reactions of photosynthesis used in the Calvin cycle


What is the function of the Calvin cycle?

synthesize simple sugars from CO2

What is the flow of elections in photosynthesis?

H2O->NADPH->calvin cycle

Which term describes centromeres uncoupling, sister chromatids separating and two new chromosomes moving to opposite ends of cell?


Meiosis results in gametes, fertilization results in ___


What is the final results of mitosis in a human?

Genetically identical 2n somatic cells

Homologous chromosomes contain

Genes for the same traits

What phase does crossing-over take place in?

Meiosis I

What is the major difference between mitosis and meiosis I in a diploid organism?

sister chromatids separate in mitosis, while homologous pairs of chromosomes separate in meiosis I

In both mitosis and meiosis the cells DNA is...

duplicated before cell division starts

In which phase does the segregation of alleles in gamete formation happen?

anaphase I of meiosis