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26 Cards in this Set

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Define: Front
Transition zone between two air masses

108.1.1
Name the frontal systems found over North America in summer and in winter and give their standard identification
- fronts named after colder air mass involved
- Arctic front between cA and mA air masses, only in winter, labelled A
- Maritime front between mA and mP air masses, labelled M
- Polar front between mP and mT air masses, labelled P

108.1.2
For a given front, name the two air masses separated by the front
- Arctic front: cA and mA
- Maritime front: mA and mP
- Polar front: mP and mT

108.1.3
Define: Frontal surface
Transition zone separating warm and cold air aloft

108.1.4
Define: Surface front
Transition zone separating warm and cold air at the surface

108.1.4
Define: Cold front
Transition zone between warm air and advancing cold air

108.1.4
Define: Warm front
Transition zone between warm air and retreating cold air

108.1.4
Define: Stationary front
Transition zone between two air masses not moving

108.1.4
List the factors used to associate air mass temperature, moisture, and stability with the severity of frontal weather conditions
- slope of frontal surface
- speed of frontal surface
- temp of lifted air mass
- moisture content of lifted air mass
- stability of lifted air mass

108.2.1
List what changes usually occur to temperature with the passage of a cold front and a warm front
- increases with warm front passage
- decreases with cold front passage

108.2.2
List what changes usually occur to dew point temperature with the passage of a cold front and a warm front
- generally increases with warm front passage
- generally decreases with cold front passage

108.2.2
List what changes usually occur to pressure with the passage of a cold front and a warm front
- generally falls with warm front passage
- usually markedly rises after cold front passage

108.2.2
Describe the effect of frontal slope on weather
- shallow slope tends to produce wide area of cloud and precipitation
- steep slope tends to produce narrow band of cloud and precipitation
- cold front slope 1:50, stationary front slope 1:100, warm front slope 1:200

108.2.3
Describe the causes of cloud and precipitation at a warm front
- moisture content of overrunning warm air
- stability of overrunning warm air
- degree of overrunning

108.2.4
Describe the causes of cloud and precipitation at a cold front
- moisture content of lifted warm air
- stability of lifted warm air
- degree of lift ie. frontal surface slope, front speed

108.2.4
List the cloud types associated with a warm front
Dry:
- no clouds or CI, AC, SC with no precipitation
Moist and stable:
- CI, CS, AS, NS, and continuous precipitation causing SF and fog
Moist and unstable:
- CI, CS, AS, NS, CB, and continuous precipitation with occasional convective showers

108.2.5
List the cloud types associated with a cold front
Dry and stable:
- no clouds or SC, AC, CU with no precipitation
Moist and stable:
- wide SC and AC with continuous or intermittent precipitation if advancing slowly
- narrower band of SC and AC with continuous/intermittent precipitation if moving quickly
Moist and unstable:
- SC, SF in showers, CU, TCU, ACC, CB, showery precipitation

108.2.5
Describe the extent and type of precipitation and icing a pilot would experience while flying through a warm front
- precip gradually increases in intensity and becomes steadier while approaching
- SN, RA, FZRA, PL
- icing in precip, especially FZRA aloft
- icing may occur in cloud below frontal surface, if below freezing
- icing regions can be larger with warm fronts due to extensive cloud cover

108.2.6
Describe the extent and type of precipitation and icing a pilot would experience while flying through a cold front
- narrow band of showery precip
- heavy icing in CB

108.2.6
Describe the visibility in advance of and behind a warm front
- reduced well in advance of front
- reduced by continuous precip, frontal fog, low ceilings
- usually worst just ahead of front
- little change after frontal passage

108.2.7
Describe the visibility in advance of and behind a cold front
- generally good ahead of front
- reduced in precip and mist close to front
- marked improvement after frontal passage

108.2.7
State the wind shift expected when flying through a warm or cold front
- whatever direction the aircraft flies from, when crossing a frontal surface, the aircraft will have to correct its heading to the right
- wind veers when crossing a front against its direction of movement
- wind backs when crossing a front with its direction of movement

108.2.8
State the weather phenomena which could indicate turbulence in a frontal system
Warm front:
- embedded CB
- may be impossible to see
Cold front:
- from convective cloud
- wind shift possible even when few clouds present
- wind shear
Frontal wind shear:
- can be present with either front

108.2.9
Define: Frontal wave
Wave-shaped distortion on a front usually associated with a trough

108.3.1
Define trough of warm air aloft and describe the symbology used to represent and define a trowal
- as cold air of cold front overtakes warmer air of warm front, warm air is forced aloft, creating trough of warm air aloft
- represented on weather map by slightly curved line with a barb at the end

108.3.2
State the temperature changes that occur with the passage of a frontal wave
- as frontal wave approaches, temps gradually increase
- once surface warm front passes, in the warm sector
- once cold front passes, temps usually drop as cooler air mass moves over

108.3.4