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104 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
(Begin Ch. 10)
Things society attaches to being male or female. Socially constructed. Shapes thoughts, feelings, and actions. It's subject to change.
Gender.
the unequal distribution of wealth, power, and privilege between men and women.
Gender Stratification.
a form of social orgnization in which females dominate males.
Matriarchy.
a form of social organization in which males dominate females.
Patriarchy.
the belief that one sex is innately superior to the other.
sexism.
Gender Stratification in politics
under–representation of women in political positions.
attitudes and activities that a society links to each sex.
Gender Roles.
Women have the lowest social standing on which continent?
Africa.
Jobs traditionally done only by women.
Tend to be personal service oriented.
Pink Collar Jobs
Are there more men or women in college?
There are more women attending college.
In the teaching profession, does the share of teachers who are women increase or decrease as the grade level taught increases?
The share of female teachers decreases as the grade increases.
Percent of women working with kids?
70%
Why are women a minority?
A minority is a category of people defined as different and disadvantaged.
Women earned____to a man's dollar in 2009?
77 cents
The term that descibes women coming home from work and doing the majority of household chores.
The 2nd Shift
Barrier preventing women from being promoted.
The glass ceiling
the notion that women should measure their worth in terms of physical appearance
The Beauty Myth
Why is the presence of women in the military such a controversy?
Women seen as nurturers instead of people who kill others.
comments, gestures, or physical contacts of sexual nature that are deliberate, repeated, and unwelcomed.
Sexual Harassment.
The surgical removal of the clitoris. Practiced in Africa
Female genital mutilation.
looks at race, class, and gender. Multi–layered arrangement of disadvantage
Intersection Theory.
support of social equality for women and men, in opposition to patriarchy and sexism.
Feminism.
Seeks equal opportunity for both sexes within the existing society.
Liberal Feminism.
Claims that gender equality will come about by replacing capitalism with socialism.
Socialist Feminism
seeks to eliminate the concept of gender itself and to create an egalitarian and gender–free society.
Radical Feminism
Resistance to feminism is most prevalent amongst which demographic of women?
Women with lower income and lower levels of education.
(end Ch. 10)
The____amendment gave women the right to vote in_____?
The 19th amendment gave women the right to vote in 1920.
(begin Ch. 11)
Socially constructed category of people who share biological transmitted traits that members of society consider important. Cannot be altered.
Race
A shared cultural heritage. Socially constructed. Cultural Traits! Can be altered.
Ethnicity
Racial Minorities
typically have less income, schooling, power, and prestige
Species vs race
Human beings all belong to the same species, regardless of race.
Measures prejudice amongst college students.
Shows patterns of people being more accepting towards minorities, excluding arabs and muslims.
Bogardus Social distance scale.
The fear of Arab and Muslim people.
Islamophobia
Where do Arab Americans emigrate from?
North Africa and the Middle East
Today, most immigrants come from where?
Mexico.
The largest minority in the US is______?
Hispanics
Where do most Hispanics live? What region of the US?
Most Hispanics live in the southwest.
The largest Hispanic minority in the US is______
Mexicans.
Most recent immigrants are coming from_____
Latin America, NOT Europe.
African Americans account for __% of the US pop. They tend to live in what part of the US?
African Americans account for 13% of the population and live in the southeast.
What is the largest Asian minority in the US in terms of population?
Chinese Americans.
Which States have a minority Majority?
California.
New Mexico.
Texas.
Hawaii.
Which states have the least amount of minorities?
Maine.
New Hampshire.
Vermont.
West Virginia.
A simplified description applied to every person in some category. May be positive or negative.
Stereotype.
a rigid and unfair generalization about an entire category of people. refers to attitudes
Prejudice.

(prejudice and discrimination reinforce one another).
unequal treatment of various categories of people. Involves actions/behavior
Discrimination.

(prejudice and discrimination reinforce one another).
Bias built into the operation of society's institutions
Institutional prejudice and discrimination.
process by which minorites gradually adopt the patterns of the dominant culture.
Ex. Changes in dress, language, religion, values, and friends.
Assimiliation.
discrimination based on sound of voice
Linguistic profiling.
biological reproduction by partners of different racial categories
Miscegenation.
Why is the US not a truly pluralistic society today?
Different racial and ethnic categories are unequal in social standing
physical and social separation of categories of people.
ex. exluding minorites from neighborhoods, schools, and occupations
Segregation
the systematic killing of one category of people by another.
ex. extermination of Jews by the Nazis
Genocide
Position of Native American in the social stratification system.
–They were here 15–30k years before europeans. –Social standing well below the national average.
–Red Skins is a racial slur against Native Americans.
What year did Native Americans gain citizenship?
1924
(WASPs)
White Anglo–Saxon Protestants were most of the original european settlers of the United States, and many continue to enjoy high social positon today.
White ethnic Americans
(end Ch. 11)
non–WASPs who's ancestors emigrated from Europe in the 19th and 20th centuries. In response to prejudice and discrimination, many white ethnics formed supportive residential enclaves.
The study of human population
Demography
The incidence of childbearing in a country's population
Fertility
The number of live births in a given year for every 1,000 people in a population
Crude birth rate
The incidence of death in a country's population
Mortality
The number of deaths in a given year for every 1,000 people in a population
Crude death rate
The number of deaths among infants under one year of age for each 1,000 live births in a given year
Infant mortality rate
The average life span of a country's population
Life expectancy
The movement of people into and out of a specified territory
Migration
The number of males for every 100 females in a nation's population
Sex ratio
A graphic representation of the age and sex of a population
Age–sex pyramid
A thesis that links population patterns to a society's level of technological development
Demographic transition theory
The rate of reproduction that maintains population at a steady level
Zero population growth
The concentration of population into cities
Urbanization
A large city that socially and economically dominates an urban area
Metropolis
Urban ares beyond the political boundaries of a city
Suburbs
A vast urban region containing a number of cities and their surrounding suburbs
Megalopolis
A type of social organization in which people are closely tied by kinship and tradition
Gemeinschaft
A type of social organization in which people come together only on the basis of individual self–interest
Gesellschaft
The study of the link between physical and social dimensions of cities
Urban ecology
The study of the interaction of living organisms and the natural environment
Ecology
Earth's surface and atmosphere, including living organisms, air, water, soil, and other resources necessary to sustain life
Natural environment
The interaction of all living organisms and their natural environment
Ecosystem
Profound long–term harm to the natural environment caused by humanity's focus on short–term material affluence
Environmental deficit
Regions of dense forestation, most of which circle the globe close to the equator
Rain forests
A rise in Earth's average temperature due to an increasing concentration of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere
Global warming
Patterns of development that expose poor people, especially minorities, to environmental hazards
Environmental racism
A way of life that meets the needs of the present generation without threatening the environmental legacy of future generations
Ecologically sustainable culture
social change
the transformation
of culture and social institutions
over time


collective behavior
activity
involving a large number of
people that is unplanned, often
controversial, and can bring
about change


crowd
a temporary gathering
of people who share a common
focus of attention and who
influence one another


mob
a highly emotional
crowd that pursues a violent or
destructive goal


riot
a social eruption that is
highly emotional, violent, and
undirected


rumor
unconfirmed information
that people spread informally,
by word of mouth or by
using electronic devices


fashion
social patterns favored
by a large number of people


fad
an unconventional social
pattern that people embrace
briefly but enthusiastically


social movement
an organized
activity in which people set
out to encourage or discourage
social change


claims making
the process of
trying to convince the public and
public officials of the importance
of joining a social movement to
address a particular issue


relative deprivation
a perceived
disadvantage arising
from some specific comparison


disaster
an event, generally
unexpected, that causes extensive
harm to people and damage
to property


modernity
changes brought
about by the Industrial
Revolution


modernization
the process
of social change begun by
industrialization


division of labor
specialized
economic activity
anomie Durkheim’s
term for a condition in
which society provides
little moral guidance to
individuals


mass society
a
society in which
prosperity and
expanding
bureaucracy have
weakened traditional
social ties


class society
a
capitalist society
with pronounced
social
stratification


social character

personality patterns
common to members
of a particular society
tradition-directedness
rigid conformity to
time-honored ways of
living


other-directedness

openness to the latest
trends and fashions,
often expressed by imitating
others


postmodernity

the transformations
caused by
the Information
Revolution and
the postindustrial
economy