• Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off

Card Range To Study



Play button


Play button




Click to flip

Use LEFT and RIGHT arrow keys to navigate between flashcards;

Use UP and DOWN arrow keys to flip the card;

H to show hint;

A reads text to speech;

15 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back

What are the 3 laws that are the foundation of how we can learn crime as set out by Gabriel Tarde?

Law of close contact, law of imitation by superiors, law of insertion.

Explain the two concepts of Sutherland's Differential Association theory.

Content: what is learned - includes techniques for committing crime, appropriate motives, rationalisations and definitions favourable or unfavourable to law. These are 'ideas' rather than behaviour.

Proces: how does learning take place - involves intimate associate with others in groups

What is Aker's Social Learning Theory?

Criminal behaviour is learned in both social situations and non-social situations (such as watching TV and observing from a distance).

What is the Subculture of Violence according to Wolfgang and Ferracuti?

Some cultures are more accepting of violence than others - manifests itself in embracing violence to socialise children, resolve disputes, etc.

What are Control Theories?

Control theories asks the question of why DON'T we commit crime rather than why do we - why do people conform to the law.

What are the 5 techniques of neutralisation as set out by Matza?

Denial of responsibility, denial of injury, denial of victim, condemnation of condemners, appealing to higher loyalties.

What is Hirschi's Social Control Theory?

Deviance occurs because a person is free to commit delinquent acts because his ties to the conventional order have somehow been broken.

What are the elements of Hirschi's Social Bonds?

Attachment, commitment, involvement, and belief.

What is Thornberry's Interactional Theory?

Reduced social constraints can lead to delinquency, but delinquency still requires an interactive setting in which it is both learned and performed.

What are Emile Durkheim's beliefs about crime?

Crime is that which is punished; crime is normal and evident in all societies; society exempt from crime is utterly impossible.

What is the function of solidarity in relation to crime according to Durkheim?

Crime occurs and leads to a sense of outrage, leads to collective action which will invoke punishment, when it is satisfied, it will reproduce solidarity.

How does crime occur as a result of Anomie?

The move from a collective society to unfettered individualism - the state of normlessness, when behaviours are confused, unclear or not present. A breakdown of rules guiding interaction.

What are the differences between Durkheim's theory of Anomie and Merton's theory of Social Structure and Anomie?

Durkheim - Anomie = a state of normlessness caused by a lack of regulation in modernising societies. Merton - mismatch between common social goals and the legitimate means to attain these goals.

What are Merton's 5 adaptations to social-structural strain?

Conformity, innovation (anomie), ritualism, retreatism, rebellionism.

What are Cloward & Ohlin's collective adaptations to strain?

Criminal subcultures - has opportunity, classic gang type behaviours; conflict subcultures - no opportunities, violent behaviour; retreatist subcultures - drop out, hang out.