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121 Cards in this Set

  • Front
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Vasodilators and treatment of angina

MOA of sildenafil (Viagra)
Inhibits phosphodiesterase-5, enhancing effects of nitric oxide-activated increases in cGMP
Drugs used in the management of angina
Aspirin, Nitrates, CCB, and Beta blockers
Aspirin reduces mortality in unstable angina by
Platelet aggregation inhibition
MOA of nitrates
Relax vascular smooth muscle, at low doses dilate veins and at high doses dilate arterioles
Nitrate used for acute anginal attacks
Nitroglycerin sublingual tablets
Nitrate used to prevent further attacks
Oral and transdermal forms of nitroglycerin
Nitrate free intervals are needed due to
SE of nitrates
Postural hypotension, reflex tachycardia, hot flashes, and throbbing headache due to meningeal artery dilation
CCB are DOC for
Prinzmetal's angina
Beta blockers are used for which type of anginal attack
Drugs used to treat CHF

MOA of Cardiac glycosides (eg. digoxin)
Indirectly increase intracellular calcium and cardiac contractility by inhibiting Na+/K+ ATPase
Digoxin is used in
Atrial fibrillation and CHF
Digoxin toxicity can be precipitated by
Antidote for digoxin toxicity
Digoxin immune fab
Drug used for moderate to severe heart failure, reduces mortality, especially for patients taking digitalis to prevent hypokalemia
Spironolactone, Eplerenone
Combination recommended for only African Americans to reduce preload and afterload in CHF
Isosorbide dinitrate/hydralazine
Beta 1 agonists used iv in acute decompensated HF
Dobutamine and dopamine
Diuretics work in CHF by
Reducing preload
Beta blockers work in CHF by
Reducing adverse effects of high catecholamine levels on heart (never use in acute heart failure)
Dual ARB and neprilysin inhibitor, early phase 2 trial for heart failure and hypertension
LCZ696, sucabitril
Select group of beta blockers that reduce heart failure mortality
Carvedilol, metoprolol, bisoprolol, nebivolol
Vasodilator used in acute CHF resembling brain natriuretic peptide
Nesiritide (Natrecor)
Drugs used in coagulation disorders

Vitamin K dependent anticoagulant
Warfarin (PT)
Warfarin is contraindicated in
Anticoagulant of choice in pregnancy
Heparin (PTT) increases activity of
Antithrombin 3
Route of administration of warfarin
Routes of administration of heparin
IV and IM (only LMW)
SE of both warfarin and heparin
SE of heparin
Heparin induced thrombocytopenia (HIT)
Alternative anticoagulant used if HIT develops
Antidote to reverse actions of warfarin
Vitamin K or fresh frozen plasma
Antidote to reverse actions of heparin
Protamine sulfate
MOA of aspirin
Irreversibly blocking cyclooxygenase
Agent used to treat MI and to reduce incidence of subsequent MI
Aspirin, metoprolol
SE of Aspirin
GI bleeding
Antiplatelet drug reserved for patients allergic to aspirin
SE for ticlopidine
Neutropenia and agranulocytosis
Effective in preventing TIA's
Clopidogrel and ticlopidine
Prevents thrombosis in patients with artificial heart valve
Block glycoprotein IIb/IIIa involved in platelet cross- linking
Abciximab, tirofiban and eptifibatide
MOA of thrombolytics
Degradation of fibrin clots and are administered IV
Thrombolytics are used for
Pulmonary embolism and DVT
Thrombolytic that can cause allergic reaction
Thrombolytic used for acute MI and ischemic (non hemorrhagic) CVA
Tissue plasmin activator
SE of tPA
Cerebral hemorrhage
Antidote for thrombolytics
Aminocaproic acid
Agents used in anemias and hematopoietic growth factors

Agent to treat hypochromic microcytic anemias
Ferrous sulfate
Chelating agent used in acute iron toxicity
Agent for pernicious anemia
Cyanocobalamin (Vit B12)
Agent used for neurological deficits in megaloblastic anemia
Vitamin B12
Agent used for megaloblastic anemia (but does NOT reverse neurologic symptoms) and decrease neural tube defects during pregnancy
Folic acid
Agent used for anemias associated with renal failure
Erythropoietin agonists
Agent used neutropenia especially after chemotherapy
G-CSF (filgrastim) and GM-CSF (sargramostim)
Treatment of patients with prior episodes of thrombocytopenia after a cycle of cancer chemotherapy
Interleukin 11 (oprelvekin)

Drugs decrease intestinal absorption of cholesterol
Bile acid-binding resins
Cholestyramine and colestipol are
Bile acid-binding resins
Major nutritional side effect of bile acid-binding resins
Impair absorption of fat soluble vitamin absorption (A,D,E,K)
MOA of lovastatin (STATIN)
inhibits HMG COA reductase
HMG CoA reductase inhibitors are contraindicated in
MOA of drug or foods (grapefruit juice) that increase statin effect
Inhibit Cytochrome P450 3A4
SE of HMG COA reductase inhibitors
Rhabdomyolysis and Hepatotoxicity
Monitoring parameter to obtain before initiation of STATINS
Decreases liver triglycerol synthesis
SE of niacin
Cutaneous flush
Cutaneous flush can be reduced by pretreatment with
Fibrates (gemfibrozil) increase activity of
Lipoprotein lipase
Most common SE of fibrates
Fibrates are contraindicated in
Concurrent use of fibrates (gemfibrozil) and statins (simvastatin, lovastatin) increases risk of
New class of drugs that works by inhibiting absorption of intestinal cholesterol and can be given concurrently with the Statins
Ezetimibe (Zetia)

inhibit prostaglandin synthesis by inhibiting cyclo-oxygenase (cox)
Difference between aspirin and other NSAIDS
Aspirin irreversibly inhibits cyclooxygenase
Four main actions of NSAIDS
Anti-inflammatory, analgesia, antipyretic and antiplatelet activity
Agent used for closure of patent ductus arteriosus
Aspirin is contraindicated in children with viral infection
Potential for development of Reye's syndrome
SE of salicylates
Tinnitus, GI bleeding
NSAID also available as an ophthalmic preparation
Diclofenac, ketoralac
NSAID available orally, IM and ophthalmically
NSAID that is used for acute condition, such as post- surgical pain and has limited duration (<5 days) of use due to nephrotoxicity
Newer NSAID that selectively inhibits COX-2
COX 2 inhibitors may have reduced risk of
Gastric ulcers and GI Bleeding
COX 2 inhibitors should be used cautiously in pts with
Pre-existing cardiac or renal disease
Acetaminophen only has
Antipyretic and analgesic activity
SE of acetaminophen
Antidote for acetaminophen toxicity Drugs-Modifying Anti-Rheumatic Agents (DMARDS)

DMARDs are slow acting drugs for
Rheumatic disease
Initial DMARD of choice for patients with RA
Drug ofter used in combination with TNF - alpha inhitors for RA
Causes bone marrow suppression
Interferes with activity of T-lymphocytes
Anti-malarial drug used in rheumatoid arthritis (RA)
SE of hydroxychloroquine
Retinal destruction and dermatitis
MOA of Leflunomide (newer agent)
Inhibiting dihydroorotate dehydrogenase which leads to decreased pyrimidine synthesis, decreased T cell proliferation and decreased antibody production by B cells
Proteins that prevent action of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha)
Adalimumab, infliximab and etanercept
Anti-rheumatic agent also used for ulcerative colitis
Anti-rheumatic agent also used for Chron's disease
Drugs used in Gout

NSAID used in gout
NSAID contraindicated in gout
MOA of colchicine (used in acute gout)
Selective inhibitor of microtubule assembly
SE of colchicine
Kidney and liver toxicity, diarrhea
Agent used to treat chronic gout by increasing uric acid secretion and excretion
Probenecid and sulfinpyrazone
Allopurinol treats chronic gout by decreasing uric acid production by inhibiting
Xanthine oxidase

Rapid acting insulins that do not self-aggregate
lispro insulin, aspart insulin, glulisine insulin
Peakless long acting insulin
Insulin glargine
Cardiac drugs

DOC for paroxysmal supraventricular tachycardia; has high efficacy and short duration of action
Miscellaneous Antimicrobial Agents: Disinfectants, Antiseptics, Sterilants

Decontamination of health care worker after caring for patient with C. difficile infection
Proper hand-washing with soap and water
Used to sterilize endoscopes and dental equipment
Formaldehyde, glutaraldehyde, ortho- phthalaldehyde, sterilox, hydrogen peroxide, peracetic acid
Disinfection of blood spills
1:10 dilution of household bleach
Bactericidal, fungicidal, sporicidal disinfectant used to wipe hospital beds
1:10 dilution of bleach, phenol