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23 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
When this type of diuretic is given, the max anti-HTN effect is reached with doses below those required for the max diuretic effect
thiazide diuretics
What are some of the adverse effects of HCTZ
slight hyperlipidemia
lassitude, weakness, impotence
Clonidine and methyldopa are what type of drug
alpha 2 selective agonists
Methyldopa is a prodrug in that it is converted to the active form _______ in the brain
Clonidine and methyldopa reduce BP by
reducing cardiac output, vascular resistance or both
What is the major compensatory response to clonidine and methyldopa
salt and water retention
This drug must not be discontiued abruptly for danger of rebound HTN
Methyldopa sideffects
sedation, positive Coombs test, hemolytic anemia
Thise drugs block nicotinic receptors but because of their adverse effects they are considered obsolete.
ganglion blockers
Hexamethonium and trimethaphan are examples of what type of drug
ganglion blockers
the major compensatory response of ganglion blockers is
salt and water retention
major adverse side effects of ganglion blockers include
sympathetic blockade - severe orthostatic hypotension, sexual dysfunction
Para blockade - constipation, blurred vision, sexual dysfunction, urinary hesitancy
reserpine works to lower BP by
depleting nerve terminal of NE
guanethidine works to lower BP by
blocking the release of stored NE from nerve terminal
major compensatory response of reserpine and guanethidine is
salt and water retention
which readily enters the CNS, reserpine or guanethidine
What is the most serious toxicity of reserpine use
behavioral depression
What are the major toxicities of guanethidine use?
orthostatic hypertension and sexual dysfunction
Which drugs can interfere with the action of guanethidine?

How do they do this?
cocaine, TCAs

interfere with action of catecholamine reuptake pump (uptake1)
How do MAO inhibitors work?
Create a false transmitter (octopamine) which competes with NE for space in the adrenergic terminal vessicles. Action potential releases this mixture that has diminished cardiac and vascular responses
Why are MAO inhibitors not so frequently used for treatment of HTN?
risk of hypertensive crisis if taken with large dose of indirect acting sympathomimetics (ie tyramine in a meal of fermented foods)
How do alpha blockers work?
reduce vascular resistance and venous return
Why are non-selective alpha blockers of no use in chronic HTN?
excessive compensatory responses (tachycardia)