• Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off

Card Range To Study



Play button


Play button




Click to flip

Use LEFT and RIGHT arrow keys to navigate between flashcards;

Use UP and DOWN arrow keys to flip the card;

H to show hint;

A reads text to speech;

46 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back


decreasing responses to a frequent innocuous (harmless) stimulus


increasing responses to a noxious or arousing stimulus

perceptual learning

becoming better at processing/recognizing a frequent stimulus


relatively stable point after substantial learning

spontaneous recovery

when repeated stimulus stops, behavior gradually returns to normal


a novel stimulus can temporarily recover responses to the habituating stimulus

stimulus specificity

responses only decrease to the habituating stimulus

massed vs. spaced habituation

taking breaks between sessions makes habituation develop more slowly, but last much longer


exposure to a stimulus biases future behavior, often without conscious processing of the stimulus

learning specificity

degree to which learning about one set of stimuli transfers to another group of stimuli

synaptic depression

reduction in synaptic transmission

repeated touch depletes sensory neuron of transmitter

receptive field

range of physical stimuli that activate a single neuron

cortical plasticity

refinement in the receptive fields of neurons due to development or experience

constraint-induced movement therapy

the "good" limb is restrained, forcing use of the desensitized limb

sensory prostheses

mechanical devices that interface with neurons to produce sensation

appetitive conditioning

the unconditioned stimulus is a positive event

aversive conditioning

new CS > CR reflex helps avoid noxious US


2 phase training program in which prior training to one cue (CS1 > US) blocks later learning of a second cue when the 2 are paired together in the second phase of the training (CS1 + CS2 > US)

latent inhibition

prior exposure to a CS retards later learning of the CS-US association

associative bias

in nature, tastes go with getting sick and sounds go with getting hurt

positive reinforcement

leads to positive effects > do it more

positive punishment

leads to negative effects > do it less

negative reinforcement (escape)

ends/avoids negative effect > do it more

negative punishment (omission)

ends/avoids a positive effect > do it less

behavioral unit

a class of behaviors producing an effect

discriminative stimulus

stimuli that signal whether a particular response will lead to a particular outcome


successive approximations to a desired response are reinforced


organisms are gradually trained to execute complicated sequences of discrete responses

(reward for picking up something, then reward for throwing it, creating a series of behaviors)


outcome that decreases frequency of a behavior


animal may learn discriminative stimuli that help it avoid punishment

fixed ratio schedule

reinforcement at specific responses (reward every 5th time)

variable ratio schedule

reinforcement varies, but there's an average (reward around every 5th time)

post-reinforcement pause

time out from responding after each reward

fixed interval schedule

reinforcement at specific times (reward every 5 minutes)

variable interval schedule

reinforcement around the same time (reward about every 5 minutes)

dorsal striatum

seems to play a role in linking a stimulus to a response

orbitofrontal cortex

seems to play a role in linking a response to an outcome

basal ganglia

set of subcortical features that link sensory and motor cortices

electrical brain stimulation

brain stimulation may directly activate the brain's "reinforcement" system, eliminating the need for natural reinforcers (food)

nucleus accumbens

sends dopamine to motor areas in striatum


may be the physiological basis for wanting aspect of reinforcement


transferring past experiences to new situations


perception of differences between stimuli

generalization gradient

graph showing physical changes in stimuli correspond to changes in behavioral responses

discrimination training

providing 2 different consequences for stimuli initially treated by an animal as similar (1000 Hz tone compared to 950 Hz tone)

sensory preconditioning

training in which presentation of 2 dissimilar stimuli together as a compound results in a later tendency to generalize what is known about one of these stimuli to the other