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46 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Define recovered memory
recovery of memories of past experiences -- some claim therapists uncover actual episodes; other that techniques used by therapists encourage suggestible client to imagine abuse that never occurred
Define Zone of Proximal Development
The amount of learning possible by a student given the proper instructional conditions
Define cognitive dissonance
mental tension that is produced by conflicting cognitions and that has drive-like properties leading to reduction
Define Piaget's accommodation
the process of changing internal structures to provide consistency with external reality -- we accommodate wshen we adjust our ideas to make sense of reality
Define learned helplessness
psychological state involving a disturbance in motivation, cognition, and emotions due to previously experienced uncontrollability (lack of contingency between action and outcome)
Compare Performance Goals to Mastery goals
performance goal - goal of completing a task
mastery goal - display of high achievement and competence in topic, brought about by planning, instruction, and grading by teacher- enjoyable learning experience
instructional event
what an effective teacher does to promote learning; promotes past memories in preparation for the next increment of learning
constructivist view of memory
view that learning takes place in contexts and that learners form or construct much of what they learn and understand as a function of their experiences in situations
effects of praise after age 8
becomes less important and a weak re-inforcer.
praise for success conveys message that teacher doesn't expect much from student
used indiscriminately conveys no info on capabiities and little effect on behavior
effects of globality, stability, controllability on development of causal inference
attributions effect achievement, beliefs, emotions and behaviors.

internal-external; stable-unstable; controllable-uncontrollable

Seligman's learned helplessness
helplessness is passivity -- people do nothing when they think they have no control over situation; retards learning; ex: weight gain
how instructors promote low achievement behavior?
lock-step instructionh to keep all on task together; no individual instruction

verbal cues
verbal and nonverbal communication conveying lack of ability
that is correct - straightforward statement

now you are on the right track, continue -- tells student to proceed and confirms that he is correct
how effort feedback is important to students with learning problems
students with special needs are easily discouraged, experience self-efficacy issues; feel ostracized
What are implicit theories
those beliefs we hold about ourselves, others and our environment
why is the helpless pattern considered maladaptive
because obstacles and challenges are unavoidable in life -- avoiding them can keep them from reaching their potential -- acceptance of helpless pattern behavior leads to repetition of the behavior
goals of the helpless vs mastery oriented students
mastery oriented welcome challenge; view challenge as new opportunity to learn
Helpless avoids challenge by choosing tasks that are too easy or too hard; they view failure as "fixed"
why helpless students orient toward performance
believe they are less able than their peers, select with the intention that they not be judged as incompetent
incremental theory of intelligence vs. entity theory of intelligence
incremental theory - intelligence is malleable, increasable, controllable
entity theory - intelligence is fixed, uncontrollable, justifying negative behaviors
mastery oriented vs helpless oriented differences in social situations
welfare recipients of multi generational families promote helpless culture by providing without effort - $ better spent geared toward education, where pride can be instilled in self-sufficiency
entity theory and morality; prejudice
cheat more easily and justify it by their being "fixed" - it is a part of their nature and can't be changed;
prejudices seen as fixed difference between the races, unchangeable
relate locus of control to attribution theory
locus of control - one has control over life's decisions; attribution theory places blame/justify reasons behind the decisions they make (attributional styles)
problems raising self-esteem in theoretical orientation
providing problems that are too easy doesn't challenge; more challenging problems lead the incremental student to take pride in solving the problem--praise for effort is preferable over praise for performance
Dweck and Leggett's theory applied to parenting practices
parental involvement in activities, reading, and academic endeavors support mastery oriented theory; good role modeling by parents - accepting responsibility not blaming others
American educational achievements and Dweck and Leggett's findings
Deterioration of world education; teachers not promoting mastery learning in trade/university education
why memory consolidation hypothesis doesn't explain retrograde amnesia
if retrograde amnesia were caused by a disruption of memory storage, then how could old (consolidated) memory be rendered amnesic
what does Howe say has to happen before we can have autobiographical memories?
must develop a sense-of-self; usually between 18 months and 2 years
2 causes of imagination creating false autobiographical memories
dreams of troubling events; impaired recall of actual events
prototype approach to concept attainment -- how do we know that one is at the classification level of concept attainment?
prototype requires that learners have the basic prerequisite capabilities of discrimination between relevant and irrelevant features
Klausmeier's 4 stage model of concept attainment
concrete level- recognize item previously encountered
identity level- recognize item previously encounter from diff perspective
classification level- recognize 2 items as being equivalent
formal level- requires identifcation of instancesand nonexamples of concept; knows what distinguishes one concept from another; requires classification
how do novice xray readers differ from expert xray readers
experts are able to recall and understand fine tuning required to read xrays; experts and novices differ in problem solving techniques; experts call on relevant info only
possess more declarative knowledge
better hierarchical organ. of knowledge
spend more time planning/analyzing
recognize problem formats easily
monitor their performances with care
understand the value of strategy
relate problem promoting positive transfer across situations of learning to research on cuing systems to facilitate memory
positive transfer occurs when you present knowledge to the class while thinking about what needs to be presented next in the learning procedure; guiding by cues to the next topic
teaching for long-term knowledge, how do you present material
enhance memory recall by changing the way the material is presented:
reinforcing old learning
relate to real life learning
use mneumonics
use different media (computer)
relate discovery learning to spiral curriculum
discovery learning - learning for oneself
spiral curriculum - promotion of varied instructional presentations
task: to translate info into a format appropriate to learner's level - teach same content in different ways
meaningful reception vs. discovery learning
meaningful reception learning- learning ideas, concepts, and principles when material is presented in final form and related to students prior knowledge
discovery learning - figure it out for oneself
disadvantages of discovery learning
confuses student if no initial framework is available
inefficient and time consuming
leads to student frustration
Gagne's belief we need to recognize 5 domains of learning; they are:
verbal information
intellectual skills
cognitive strategies
psychomotor skills
Gagne's criticism of packaged instruction
-all nine steps of instruction must be covered
-pkgs lack reinforcement
-designed by experts with no teaching knowlege
-designed to instruct many using one technique; no regard for diff learning styles
when are simulations a good idea in instruction
they provide instruction safely
when are simulations unnecessary in instruction
when it is important that the learner go through a sequence of procedures to understand the process as a whole
2 positive contributions of humanistic psychology to understanding motivation and learning
Maslow's heirarchy of motivation
--learning is facilitated when student participates in learning process;
--is primarily based on direct confrontation with practical, social, personal or research problems
--self evaluation is principal method of assessing progress/success
Maslow's Hierarchy of Motivation (Need)
I-Physiological needs
III-Love & belongingness
IV-self-esteem needs
cognitive dissonance theory
states irrational behavior is an attempt to make sense out of discrepancies
ex: newlyweds don't see flaws
difference between need for achievement and fear of failure
need for achievement requires moderate/doable goals

fear of failure requires close calls to motivate to excel
How do goals affect cognitions; affects; behaviors
cognitions - challenge their own thinking & increase mastery
affects - threatens self-esteem
behavior - influences task choices and performance, reaction when failure occurs