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73 Cards in this Set

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OPERANT CONDITIONING

a type of learning in which the future probability of a behavior is affected by its consequences.

LAW OF EFFECT

the proposition that behaviors that lead to satisfying state of affairs are strengthened or "Stamped In" while behaviors that lead to unsatisfying or annoying state of affairs are weakened or "Stamped Out".

OPERANT BEHAVIOR

A class of emitted responses that result in certain consequences; these consequences, in turn, affect the future probability or strength of those behaviors.

REINFORCER

follows a behavior and increases the future probability of that behavior.

PUNISHER

follows a behavior and decreases the future probability of the behavior.

EXTINCTION

remove the reinforcer that follows behavior and wait for the behavior to fade.

DISCRIMINATIVE STIMULUS

a stimulus in the presence of which responses are reinforced and in the absence of which they are not reinforced; that is, a stimulus that signals the availability of reinforcement.

THREE-TERM CONTINGENCY

the relationship between a discriminative stimulus, an operant behavior and a reinforcer/punisher.

POSITIVE REINFORCEMENT

Consequence= something added, given or done to the individual.


Because of this consequence, the individual is more likely to repeat the behavior.

NEGATIVE REINFORCEMENT

Consequence= something being lost, removed or taken away.


Because of this consequence, the individual is more likely to repeat the behavior.

POSITIVE PUNISHMENT

Consequence= something being added, given, or don to the individual.


Because of this consequence, the individual is less likely to repeat the behavior.

NEGATIVE PUNISHMENT

Consequences= something lost, removed or taken from the individual.


Because of the consequence, the individual is less likely to repeat the behavior.

ESCAPE BEHAVIOR

a behavior that results in the termination of an aversive behavior.


Example: if you are getting rained on you open an umbrella.

PRIMARY REINFORCER

an event that is innately reinforcing.


Example: food, water, temperature etc.

SECONDARY REINFORCER

an event that is reinforcing because it has been associated with some other reinforcer.


Example: good marks and praise, studying and good grades etc.

GENERALIZED REINFORCER

a type of secondary reinforcer that has been associated with several other reinforcers.


Example: money is associated with food, entertainment, dating etc.

INTRINSIC REINFORCEMENT

reinforcement provided by the mere act of performing the behavior; the performance of the behavior is inherently reinforcing.


Example: Running because it gives you energy and is invigorating.

EXTRINSIC REINFORCEMENT

the reinforcement provided by a consequence that is external to the behavior or external reinforcer. Example: Only reading the textbook because you have an exam. Passing the exam is the extrinsic reinforcer.

NATURAL REINFORCER

reinforcers that are naturally provided for a certain behavior; that is, they are a typical consequence of the behavior within that setting.


Example: gold metals= training, hard work and good performance.

CONTRIVED REINFORCER

reinforcers that have been deliberately arranged to modify a behavior; they are not a typical consequence of the behavior in that setting.

SHAPING

the gradual creation of new operant behavior through reinforcement of successive approximations to that behavior.


Example:Sniffy-click lever when near to receive food, so as a result he stands near the lever more.

EDWARD THORNDIKE

created the puzzle box

PUZZLE BOX

put a hungry cat in a box with food outside of the box and in order for the cat to reach the food it has to learn how to escape by stepping on a treadle that opened the gate.

FREE OPERANT

the rat freely responds with a particular behavior for food, and is able to do so whenever he pleases.

CLASS OF RESPONSES

rat can press lever: fast or slow, hard or soft, left or right paw etc

REINFORCEMENT

reinforcing/ changing a behavior (strengthening).

PUNISHMENT

weakening behavior.

SHEDULE OF REINFORCEMENT

the response requirement that must be met to obtain reinforcement.

CONTINUOUS REINFORCEMENT SCHEDULE

a schedule in which each specified response is reinforced. Example: Sniffy gets a treat every time he touches the bar.

INTERMITTENT REINFORCEMENT SCHEDULE

a schedule in which only some of the responses are reinforced. Example: only some of the bar presses result in Sniffy receiving a food pellet.

FIXED RATIO SCHEDULE

a schedule in which reinforcement is contingent upon a fixed, predictable number of responses. Example: Sniffy has to press the bar 5 times to receive a treat.

VARIABLE RATIO SCHEDULE

a schedule in which reinforcement is contingent upon a varying, unpredictable amount of responses. Example: Sniffy has to press the bar an average of 5 times, sometimes it may be more or less.

FIXED INTERVAL SCHEDULE

a schedule in which reinforcement is contingent upon the first response after a fixed, predictable period of time. Example: The first lever press after a 30 sec period receives food.

VARIABLE INTERVAL SCHEDULE

a schedule in which reinforcement is contingent upon the first response after a varying, unpredictable period of time. Example: The first lever press after an average of 30 sec receives food, sometimes more or less than 30 sec.

RATIO STRAIN

a disruption of responding due to an overly demanding response requirement.


Example: Burn out. Heavy workload+use to getting by with minimal work= burnout and drop out of college.

FIXED DURATION SCHEDULE

a schedule in which reinforcement is contingent upon continuous performance of a behavior for a fixed, predictable period of time.


Example: Sniffy must run for 60 seconds to receive one pellet.

VARIABLE DURATION SCHEDULE

a schedule in which reinforcement is contingent upon continuous performance of a behavior for a varying, unpredictable amount of time. Example: Sniffy must run for an average 60 seconds to receive food, sometimes it will be more or less than 60 sec.

DIFFERENTIAL REINFORCEMENT OF HIGH RATES

a schedule in which reinforcement is contingent upon emitting at least a certain number of responses in a certain period of time- or more generally, reinforcement is provided for responding at a fast rate. Example: Sniffy receives a pellet if he hits the bar 30 times in a minute.

DIFFERENTIAL REINFORCEMENT OF LOW RATES

a schedule in which a minimum amount of time must pass between each response before the reinforcer will be delivered- or more generally, reinforcement is provided for responding at a slower rate. Example: Sniffy receives a pellet if he hits the bar after at least 10 seconds, but doesn't receive anything if he presses it before that time.

NONCONTINGENT SCHEDULES

response is not required to obtain the reinforcer.

DRIVE REDUCTION THEORY

an event is reinforcing to the extent that it is associated with a reduction in some type of psychological drive. Example: Food deprivation->hunger drive->seek out food.

PREMACK PRINCIPLE

the notion that a behavior can be used to reinforce a low-probability behavior.


Example: If Sniffy is hungry eating food is the higher-probability than running on a wheel, so food can be used to reinforce the lower-probability choice of running on the wheel.

RESPONSE DEPRIVATION HYPOTHESIS

the notion that a behavior can serve as a reinforcer when access to the behavior is restricted and its frequency thereby falls below its preferred level of occurrence.


Example: Sniffy likes to run for 1 hour (preferred level of running), if he is limited to 15 minutes (deprivation) he will be more willing to work for extra time on the wheel.

BEHAVIORAL BLISS POINT

the theory that an organism with free access to alternative activities will distribute its behavior in such a way as to maximize overall reinforcement. Example: if a rat can run freely between the wheel and the maze it may spend 1 hour running and 2 hours exploring.

SCHEDULE EFFECTS

the effects on behavior from different response requirements.

STRETCHING THE RATIO

moving from a low ratio requirement to a high ratio requirement. Example: moving from having to press the bar 2 times then 5 then 10 gradually moving up.

DENSE SCHEDULE

many more reinforcers.

LEAN SCHEDULE

less reinforcers

EXTINCTION

the non-reinforcement of a previously reinforced response, the result of which is a decrease in the strength of that response.


Example: lever press=food ---> lever press=no food over time this will cause extinction.

RESISTANCE TO EXTINCTION

the extent to which responding persists after an extinction procedure has been implemented.

SPONTANEOUS RECOVERY

the reappearance of an extinguished response following the rest period after extinction.

DIFFERENTIAL REINFORCEMENT


OF OTHER BEHAVIOR

reinforcement of any behavior other than a target behavior that is being extinguished.


Example: Child whining in store wanting candy, not only do you reinforce the non-whiney but also manners.

STIMULUS GENERALIZATION

the more similar the stimulus the stronger the response. Example: If the rat is used to responding to a tone of 2000 htz then it will respond to other tones similar, and stronger to tones closer such as 1800-2200 htz than to 1200 or 2800.

SIDE EFFECTS OF EXTINCTION

extinction burst


increase in variability


emotional behavior


aggression


resurgence


depression

STIMULUS DISCRIMINATION

in operant conditioning, the tendency for an operant response to be emitted more in the presence of one stimulus than another.


Example:


EXPOSURE AND RESPONSE PREVENTION

a method of treating obsessive compulsive behavior that involves prolonged exposure to anxiety-arousing events while not engaging in the compulsive behavior pattern that reduces the anxiety. Example: OCD cleaning- first touch door handles, then trash cans and then dead birds etc.

LEARNED HELPLESSNESS


a decrement in learning ability that results from repeated exposure to uncontrollable aversive events. Example: learned from inexscapeable shocks that it was pointless to try to get out.

RESPONSE COST

a form of negative punishment involving the removal of a specific reinforcer following the occurrence of a behavior.

TIME-OUT

a form of negative punishment involving the loss of access to positive reinforcers for a brief period of time following the occurrence of a problem.

CONCURRENT SCHEDULES OF REINFORCEMENT

a complex schedule consisting of the simultaneous presentation of two or more independent schedules, each leading to a reinforcer. Example: Pigeon given choice of blue 20 peck or green 50 pecks, and after a series of trials, the pigeon learns to pick the 20 more often.

MATCHING LAW

the principle that the proportion of responses emitted on a particular schedule matches the proportion of reinforcers obtained on that schedule.

UNDERMATCHING

a deviation from matching in which the proportion of responses on the richer schedule vs poorer schedule is less different than would be predicted by matching.

OVERMATCHING

a deviation from matching in which the proportion of responses on the richer schedule vs poorer schedule is more different than would be predicted by matching.

BIAS FROM MATCHING

higher than expected choice of one alternative despite the consequences. Example: Pigeon picks the blue disc every time because he likes the color blue.

SELF-CONTROL

with respect to choice between 2 rewards, selecting a larger later reward over a smaller sooner reward.

IMPULSIVENESS

smaller sooner > larger later.

COMMITMENT RESPONSE

an action carried out at an early point in time that serves to either eliminate or reduce the value of an upcoming temptation.

SMALL BUT CUMULATIVE EFFECTS MODEL

each individual choice on a self-control task has only a small but cumulative effect on our likelihood of obtaining the desired long-term outcome.

PHYSICAL RESTRAINT

physically manipulate the environment to prevent the occurrence of some problem behavior.

DEPRIVING AND SATIATION

altering the extent to which a certain event can act as a reinforcer. Example: skip lunch to ensure you are hungry at dinner.

DOING SOMETHING ELSE

to prevent yourself from doing one behavior you do an alternate behavior.

SELF-REINFORCEMENT/PUNISHMENT

reinforce your own behavior.

MISCHEL'S DELAY OF GRATIFICATION PARADIGM

given 2 items(food) and tell kid to stay to recieve the preffered item, if they sounded early, they recieved the smaller, less preffered of the two.