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165 Cards in this Set

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  • Back

Angle Iron

An L-shaped, steel bar or structural steel member used to make a frame rigid


A cementous material, solid or semisolid, made primarily of bitumens which occur in nature. Can also be created by refining petroleum. Used as a roofing sealant or paving surface.

Brass Pipe

Any pipe constructed from any copper alloy containing zinc as its principal alloying element. Often used in plumbing where rust is a factor. (67% to 85% copper, rest zinc; higher copper is better grade)


A solid or hollow masonry unit made from clay or shale, most common module is 4 inches; specific terms given to unit depending on position (stretcher, header, soldier, rowlock stretcher, rowlock, sailor). Joints (head, bed, collar) should be compressed and tooled for highest degree of watertightness.

Butt Hinge

A door or window hinge consisting of two rectangular metal plates which are joined with a pin, fastened to butting surface such as the face of a jamb or edge of a door.

A door or window hinge consisting of two rectangular metal plates which are joined with a pin, fastened to butting surface such as the face of a jamb or edge of a door.


A resilient mastic compound used to seal cracks and fill joints in order to prevent leakage, provide waterproofing, noise mitigation, and thermal insulation.

Ceramic Tile

A thin, precast product composed primarily of clay that has been fired to a high degree to prevent moisture absorption; available in both an unglazed (natural) finish or with a colored finish baked onto its surface; always used with mortar or grout, and are available in a variety of size and shapes.

Common applications include paving and pool walls.

Concrete Masonry Units (CMU)


A block or brick cast of portland cement and suitable aggregate with or without admixtures; Grade N is suitable for exterior walls, below- or aboveground work; Grade S is limited to above grade, exterior walls with a protective coating. Types are based on moisture content and potential shrinkage.

Concrete Pavers

A solid concrete brick used to create a paved surface. Used with or without grout. Posses low absorpotion and high compressive strength in order to resist freeze/thaw cycles and heavy traffic.

Cooper Pipe

A pipe constructed of a lustrous metal that is highly ductile, malleable, and resistant to corrosion; very expensive. Used for supply of hot and cold tap water, refrigerant line in HVAC systems.

Epoxy Sealer

A class of synthetic, thermosetting resins which provide tough, hard, waterproof, chemically resistant coatings, seals, and adhesive.

Expansion Joint Material

Asphalt impregnated fiber strip used to provide waterproof separation between adjacent structural elements.

Filter Fabric

A geotextile material, designed to allow water to pass through while retaining fine particulate matter. Common uses for silt fences, underground drains, and behind retaining walls.


A thin, impervious sheet metal placed in construction to prevent water penetration and or provide water drainage especially between roof and a wall and over exterior door openings and windows. Typically made of aluminum or stainless steel.

Flat Steel

Galvanized sheet metal used for windows or door inlets, bracing for wood deck posts, or other connections.

Carriage Bolt Assembly

Assembly of a nut, bolt, and a washer.

Assembly of a nut, bolt, and a washer.

Cement Nail

Nail coated with cement to increase its holding power

Nail made of case-hardened steel that has a spiral built into the shaft. This spiral gives it holding power when driven into the concrete


A class of synthetic, thermosetting resins which produce tough, hard, chemically resistant coatings and are excellent adhesives. Used in the landscape as a cementing agent for pavement toppings.

Eye Bolt

A bolt having a head in the form of a loop. Commonly used for hanging applications.

A bolt having a head in the form of a loop. Commonly used for hanging applications.

Finish Nail

A slender nail made of finer wire than other nails. Has a head type that allows it to be set below the surface of wood.

A slender nail made of finer wire than other nails. Has a head type that allows it to be set below the surface of wood.

Joist Hanger

A metal angle or strap used to fix a joist to a beam or girder.

A metal angle or strap used to fix a joist to a beam or girder.

L-Shaped Bolt Anchor Assembly

A steel bolt in the shape of an L - usually fixed within a structure at construction with the threaded portion out. Used to secure frameworks, timber, or machinery bases, etc. Can also be used in exterior posts to attache a metal post to a concret...

A steel bolt in the shape of an L - usually fixed within a structure at construction with the threaded portion out. Used to secure frameworks, timber, or machinery bases, etc. Can also be used in exterior posts to attache a metal post to a concrete footing.

Lag Screw / Lag Bolt

A bolt having a hex head and course pitched thread. Used for connecting wood members where both ends of the bolt are not accessible.

A bolt having a hex head and course pitched thread. Used for connecting wood members where both ends of the bolt are not accessible.

Lag Bolt and Expansion Sheild

A lag bolt anchoring device that, when combined, swells as the bolt is tightened through an expandable slot. Used in masonry walls for attaching timber.

A lag bolt anchoring device that, when combined, swells as the bolt is tightened through an expandable slot. Used in masonry walls for attaching timber.

Lag Bolt with Lead Shield

A lag bolt used in combination with an anchor that has a lead sleeve surrounding it. The sleeve expands as the bolt is tightened.

A lag bolt used in combination with an anchor that has a lead sleeve surrounding it. The sleeve expands as the bolt is tightened.

Lewis Bolt

A bolt with a wedge shaped end inserted into a hole then fastened inside by pouring melted lead or concrete into the hole.

Machine Bolt

A threaded bolt having a straight shank and conventional head. Requires the use of a nut and two wrenches.

A threaded bolt having a straight shank and conventional head. Requires the use of a nut and two wrenches.

List methods of fastening or connecting wood to:
1. wood
2. concrete
3. masonry

1. Nails, wood screws, bolts
2. Lead anchors and lag bolts gals. angles
3. Lead anchors and lag bolts

List methods of fastening or connecting asphalt to:
1. Concrete
2. Aggregate
3. Asphalt

1. tack coat of emulsified asphalt
2. prime coat of cutback asphalt
3. tack coat of emulsified asphalt

List methods of fastening or connecting Masonry to:
1. Concrete
2. Masonry

1. Mortar, masonry anchors, grout
2. Mortar, masonry ties and/or anchors

List methods of fastening or connecting metal to:
1. Masonry
2. Concrete
3. Metal

1. grout and galvanized surface
2. grout and galvanized surface
3. make sure of galvanized surfaces to prevent corrosion


A solid or hollow masonry unit of day or shale, molded into a rectangular shape while plastic, and then burnt in a kiln. Used in many ways but principally in the construction of dwellings and hardscapes.


A resilient mastic compound, often containing silicone, bituminous, or rubber base; used to seal cracks and fill joints, in order to prevent leakage and provide waterproofing.


A composite material which consists essentially of a binding medium within which are embedded particles or fragments of aggregate; in portland cement concrete, the binder is a mixture of portland cement and water.

Filter Fabric

A geotextile material, designed to allow water to pass through while retaining fine soil particles. Common uses are in silt fences, underground drains, and behind retaining walls.


A thin impervious sheet metal placed in construction to prevent water penetration and/ or provide water drainage, especially between a roof and a wall, and over exterior door openings and windows. Typically composed of aluminum or stainless steel.

Flat Steel

Galvanized sheet metal used for window or door lintels, bracing for wood deck posts, or other connections.

Cement Nail

A nail which is coated with cement to increase its holding power.

Finish Nail

A slender nail made from finer wire than the common nail; has a brad type head which permits it to be set below the surface of the wood, leaving only a small hole which can be puttied easily; used primarily in finishing work.


Mortar containing a considerable amount of water so that it has the consistency of a viscous liquid, permitting it to be poured or pumped into cracks, joints, and cores within masonry walls. Grouts are high in tensile bond strength, but low in compressive strength.


A mixture of cement, sand, water, and lime used to bond together precast masonry units.

Soil Cement

A mixture of mineral soil, Portland cement, and water used to make a hard surface. Used to strengthen the bearing capacity of a soil for paving or retaining walls. It is also sometimes used as a simple pavement by itself for trails.

Welded Wire Mesh

A series of longitudinal and transverse wires, arranged at right angles to each other, and welded together at each intersection. Used as reinforcement in concrete paving to hold cracks tightly together. Specified by the spacing of the wires (in inches) and the gauge (wire diameter). Common sizes are 6x6 #10, 6x6 #8, 4x4 #10, and 4x4 #8.

What factors affect a nails holding power?

diameter, length, shape and surface.

What materials are common nails usually made of?

Steel or aluminum.

Describe how nails are sized and measured

Length (inches) or Penny (another length unit, d, one penny is approx 1/2"), gauge (diameter; The bigger the number, the thinner the nail)

What is the difference between joist hanger nails and common nails?

Joist hanger nails are shorter than common nails of the same gauge or penny.

Describe how concrete handles compressive and tensile forces.

Concrete is inherently strong in compression, but steel reinforcement is required to handle tensile and shear stresses.

What is Portland Cement?

a hydraulic cement made by burning a mixture of clay and limestone in a rotary kiln and pulverizing the resulting clinker into a very fine powder.

What are the components of concrete?

mixture of aggregate, portland cement, water and sometimes admixtures.

How many types of Portland Cement are there?


What factors limit coarse aggregate size in reinforced concrete?

the size of the section and the spacing of the reinforcing bars limit aggregate size.
1/3 the depth of a slab, 1/5 the thickness of a wall or non-reinforced elements, or 3/4 of the clear space between the bars and the form work.

What is the purpose of Air-entraining concrete admixtures?

Should be used under all conditions involving severe exposure to frost/thaw temperatures. They disperse microscopic air bubbles to increase workability and resistance to cracking from freeze/thaw.

What type of water should be used for mixing concrete?

Potable water. Avoid water with sulfates, salts or deleterious substances.

List 4 ways to reduce water penetration in concrete.

1. Keep water:cement ratio to less than 0.5 by weight
2. carefully treat all joints and cracks to prevent leaks
3. add chemical and admixtures to reduce water penetration
4. apply waterproof surface seal or compound.

Three reasons for controlling the setting time of concrete are:

1. reduce the setting time when below freezing

2. increase working time when temps are hot

3. control bleeding, or the movement of water to the surface of freshly placed concrete.

What three factors are controlled by the water:cement ratio?

Strength, durability and water tightness

The compressive strength of concrete is ___________ proportional to the ratio of water to cement.


Too much water makes it weak and porous after curing. too little water makes concrete dense and unworkable. Best ratio of water:cement is usually 0.45 to 0.6

How is concrete usually specified?

According to the compressive strength it will develop within 28 days after placement.

What two tests are used for concrete to determine strength and workability?

1. Slump test: determines consistency and workability of freshly mixed concrete.

2. Compression test: uses a hydraulic press to measure the max load a 6" test cylinder can support in axial compression before fracturing.

What are several uses/benefits of steel reinforcement of concrete?

1. absorb tensile, shearing and sometimes compressive stresses
2. ties vertical and horizontal elements
3. reinforces the edges around openings
4. minimizes shrinkage and cracking
5. controls thermal expansion and contraction

How is rebar sized?

the bar number refers to its diameter in eighths of an inch; e.g. #5 bar is 5/8 in diameter, so #4 rebar is 1/2"

What is another name for common brick?

Building brick; not specially treated for color or texture.

What is Face Brick?

made of special clays for facing a wall, often treated to produce the desired color and surface texture.

How quickly should ready-mixed concrete be delivered and placed after cement has been added to the mixture?

90 minutes.

What must be done to the subgrade and forms prior to pouring concrete?

They must be moistened to prevent extraction of water from the concrete. Forms should also be treated with a non-staining release agent for easier removal.

What are the three most common joints used in concrete construction?

1. isolation or expansion joints
2. Control or contraction joints
3. Construction joints

Expansion/Isolation Joint

type of joint that extends the full depth of the concrete to provide lateral movement between slabs or other fixed structures.

Control/Contraction joint

type of joint that is 1/4-1/3 the depth of the concrete to restrict the cracking of the concrete to predetermined locations.

If tooled, this is done during the finishing of the concrete. If sawed, this is done within 12-24 hours of finishing.

Construction joint

type of joint that provides places where casting of concrete can be stopped during construction.

They may contain tie bars, slip dowels, and/or keyways for load transfer.

What are the spacing requirements for control joints?

for a 4"thick or more, should have control joints 8-10' apart, but never more than 20' apart in any direction. Make square shapes when possible.

All joints, except control joints should be filled with what type of material?

fiber, wood, metal or other materials to provide a smooth and safe wearing surface.

What are the most common methods for retaining the moisture in concrete for proper curing?

1. wet curing
2. waterproof paper or plastic sheets
3. sprinkling or ponding of water
4. curing compounds

What is the best temperature range for curing concrete?

50F-85F (10-29C)

How long should concrete be protected from freezing weather during installation?

1-2 weeks

What should be used to retain moisture during the curing process on colored concrete?

A wax-based curing compound that is clear or the same color as the colorant should be used, because waterproof paper or plastic sheeting will result in discoloration.

What is the purpose of a concrete seal or glaze?

to provide a waterproof sealer which prevents or reduces moisture and chloride penetration.

What are the three common types of concrete seal/glaze?

1. Sealer and curing compound-applied on damp concrete or used on fresh concrete as a non-fugitive curing compound that will provide continuous protection.

2. Glazier-sealer: a compound that brings out the natural color of slate, brick, stone and concrete, while providing moisture and chloride protection.
3. Deck coating: allows water to evaporate, but still protects. UV resistant. Do not apply until concrete is thoroughly dry.

What is efflorescence?

a white powdery deposit that forms on an exposed masonry or concrete surface, caused by the leaching and crystallization of soluble salts from within the material. Reducing moisture absorption is the best assurance against efflorescence.

What are the standard nominal dimensions of a brick?

4" wide, 2 2/3" high, 8" long (includes manufactured width of unit plus a mortared joint (3/8-1/2"))

3 courses = 8 inches.

What are the 6 brick unit positions?

TSS pp. 840-5

stretcher, header, soldier, rowlock stretcher, rowlock, sailor

List 3 mortar joint types with good weatherability.

concave or rooded and set in slightly, V-shaped, and grapevine

List four mortar joint types with Fair weatherability.

Flush and rodded (concave not set in); weathered (\), ruled (small V inset); flush or plain cut.

List 5 mortar joint types with poor weatherability.

Beaded (}), Raked (inset flat); struck (/); extruded (convex protruding); scintled (rough extruded)

What does brick grading designate?

the durability of a brick unit when exposed to weathering in one of 3 U.S. weathering regions.

Brick is graded according to its compressive strength, max water absorption and max saturation coefficient.

What is SW brick?

suitable for exposure to severe weathering.

What is MW and NW brick?

MW: suitable for exposure to moderate weathering.

NW: suitable for negligible weathering as in back up or interior masonry.

Concrete Masonry Units (CMU)

precast units of Portland cement, fine aggregate and water.

What are the two grades of concrete block?

N: loadbearing CMU suitable for use both above and below grade in walls exposed to moisture or weather.

S: loadbearing CMU limited to use in above grade, in exterior walls with weather-protective coatings, or in walls not exposed to moisture or weather.

What is the difference between Type I and II CMU?

Type I is manufactured to a specified limit of moisture content to minimize shrinkage that can cause cracking.

Type II has no specified MC.

What is the standard nominal dimension of a CMU stretcher block?



A flat stone usually not more than 4 inches thick used for outdoor paving.

Describe Granite and its uses.

Granite is difficult to finish and relatively expensive. Typical uses include building veneer, pavers, curbing, crushed stone, and granite dust.

Describe Limestone and its uses.

Limestone is chemically reactive and should be waterproofed or isolated by a waterproof membrane if it touches the ground to prevent staining. Typical uses include building veneer, ashlar or flagstone walls, pavers, crushed aggregate and limestone dust.

Describe Marble and it's uses.

Available in 4 quality grades and chemically reactive. Uses: veneer, monuments, and crushed aggregate.

Describe Sandstone and its uses.

Serves well as a non-slip walking surface. Uses: veneer, pavers, cut stone and rubble.

Describe Slate and its uses.

Strong and durable, high tensile strength, lots of colors. Uses: flagstones for paving or walls, and roofing slate.

How do air content, flow and time affect the bond strength of mortar?

1. as the air content is increased, bond strength decreases.
2. as the flow increases, the bond strength increases.
3. as the lapsed time between the spreading of the mortar and the laying of units increases, the bond strength decreases.

What are the three components of mortar?

cementitious material. clean well-graded sand, and water.

What 4 plastic properties does mortar possess?

Workability, water retention, initial flow, flow after suction.

What determines the compressive strength of mortar?

the amount of portland cement in the mix.

What are the types of reinforcement used in masonry construction?

wire reinforcement, wall ties, anchors, dowels and reinforcing bars.

How can corrosive situations be prevented when aluminum is used?

by applying bituminous or zinc chromate prime on metal.


A metal with various iron based alloys having a carbon content less than that of cast iron and more than wrought iron.

Qualities: strength, hardness and elasticity; normally subject to corrosion, so must be painted, galvanized or chemically treated for protection against oxidation.

Alloy Steel

carbon steel to which various elements, such as chromium, cobalt, copper, manganese, etc. have been added in a sufficient amount to obtain a particular physical or chemical property.

Stainless Steel

Contains a min of 12% chromium, sometimes with nickel, manganese, or molybdenum as additional alloying elements, so as to be highly corrosion resistant.

Aluminum, copper and lead

3 non-ferrous metals usually used in construction


various alloys consisting essentially of copper and zinc.

Galvanic Action

occurs between two dissimilar metals when enough moisture is present for electric current to flow. This electric current will tend to corrode one metal while plating the other.

The more water used in a portland cement concrete mixture, the lower will be the __________ strength of the resulting mix.


An asphalt concrete mixture that may be spread and compacted at normal air temperature is called?

cold-mix asphalt.

The portland cement mortar that should NOT be specified for use in exterior locations exposed to freezing temperatures is?

Type O.

The test used to measure the consistency between batches of portland cement concrete is the

Slump test

Adding water to a mortar mix improves its ?

tensile bond strength

Which admixture might be added to a portland cement concrete mixture when it is being poured for an exposed aggregate walkway on a hot day?

a retardant.

What is the common size for a mortar joint for masonry walls when using a standard module brick?


An application of a cutback asphalt to an aggregate base course to prepare the base for subsequent courses of asphalt concrete paving is termed a ______ coat.


A brick masonry patter in which every other brick in the wall is a header is termed?

Flemish bond

What is a wythe?

a continuous section of masonry that is one unit in thickness.

What is a structural bond?

a masonry pattern in which the individual units or wythes are interlocked to cause the entire assembly to function as single structural unit.

A material used to bond steel rebars to concrete block in a retaining wall is?


Edge restraints are required for pavements set up what kind of base course?


List the four items that should always be addressed on a construction detail.

Materials, finishes, fasteners and dimensions

What is the purpose of curing concrete?

to allow hydration to continue.

True or False? typically grouts are high in tensile strength, but low in compressive strength.


What type of concrete block is most commonly used for landscape applications?

Hollow load bearing concrete block

How do you calculate board feet?

(# of pieces)x(width in inches)x(height in inches)x(length in feet)/(all divided by 12)

What are the 5 types of portland cement?

Type I: normal general purpose, usually provided unless otherwise specified

Type II: moderate sulfate resistance

Type III: high early strength

Type IV: low heat of hydration

Type V: high sulfate resistance

How is compressive strength of concrete measured?

in psi after 28 days of curing

What is the tip psi specified for concrete?

3000-5000 psi

What is the most common grade of rebar used in landscape construction?

Grade 40: 40,000psi

Grade 50: 50,000psi min strength

How is welded wire mesh specified?

first # is longitudinal spacing, second # is transverse spacing, third # is wire size (gauge)
e.g. 6"x6" #10 WWM
***The higher the gauge the thinner the wire!!!!!!

What is cutback asphalt?

Asphalt cement which has been liquified by blending with petroleum solvents. Upon exposure to the atmosphere, the solvents evaporate, leaving the asphalt cement to perform its function of cementing and waterproofing. There are 4 types.

What are the 4 types of cutback asphalt?

Rapid Curing (RC)- asphalt cement and a naptha or gasoline type solvent of high volatility

Medium Curing (MC)- Asphalt cement and a kerosene type solvent of medium volatility

Slow Curing (SC)- Asphalt cement and an oil of low volatility

Road Oil- a heavy petroleum oil, very slow curing

What is the purpose of cutback asphalt?

Like emulsions, cutbacks are used because they reduce asphalt viscosity for lower temperature uses (tack coats, fog seals, slurry seals, stabilization material). Similar to emulsified asphalts, after a cutback asphalt is applied the petroleum solvent evaporates leaving behind asphalt cement residue on the surface to which it was applied. A cutback asphalt is said to “cure” as the petroleum solvent evaporates away. The use of cutback asphalts is decreasing because of (Roberts et al., 1996[1]):

Environmental regulations. Cutback asphalts contain volatile chemicals that evaporate into the atmosphere. Emulsified asphalts evaporate water into the atmosphere.
Loss of high energy products. The petroleum solvents used require higher amounts of energy to manufacture and are expensive compared to the water and emulsifying agents used in emulsified asphalts.
In many places, cutback asphalt use is restricted to patching materials for use in cold weather.

What is a tack coat?

A light application of an emulsified asphalt used to ensure a bond between two asphalt pavement courses.

What is emulsified asphalt?

An emulsion of asphalt cement and water. When applied, the water evaporates, leaving the asphalt to perform it's function.

What is a prime coat?

An application of low viscosity cutback asphalt to an absorbent surface such as crushed stone or gravel. It is used to prepare the base course for an asphalt pavement. The asphalt penetrates into the base, plugs the voids, hardens the top and helps bind the base material to the overlying asphalt pavement.

What is the max depth of an asphalt lift?

lift=layer. usually 4-6"

What are the three functions of a precast pavement base course?

1. support the expected traffic load

2. provide drainage

3. provide ground swell protection

What are the 3 types of bases used for precast pavers?


What is a rigid base?

usually for pavements that will support heavy vehicular traffic; consist of a prepared sub grade on which a portland cement concrete slab is installed.

What is a semi-flexible base?

a base course consisting of one or more courses of an asphalt based paving material. suitable for ped and vehicular use depending on depth of the base.

What is a flexible base?

one or more layers of crushed stone or gravel over a well compacted sub grade. Flexible bases are usually less expensive and easier to install. vehicular of ped traffic depending on depth.

What are the three types of setting beds?

1. rigid: mortar or grout used to bond the pavers to the base course. Type M mortar usually used for exterior pavements because of its high compressive strength and durability. 1/2-2" deep. Only use over rigid bases to prevent cracking.
2. semi-flexible: mixture of asphalt cement and sand. May be used over either rigid or semi-flexible beds. Tack coat on top of asphalt layer under pavers
3.flexible: 1-2 inch depth of bedding sand or stone dust. may be used over any base course system, but only used with a flexible jointing system.

How thick is decking material?

Should be greater than one inch. Common is two inches. Nominal.

What should the spacing between decking planks be?

No more than 1/8th of an inch or the equivalent thickness of a 16D nail.

What is the maximum recommended width for decking?

6 inches because of its propensity to warp

How should decking be laid?

Bark side up to avoid cupping of the decking material and later, drainage problems.

What types of failures are seen in joists and beams?

Compression internally

Tension externally

from weight on top.

Beware of line of maximum shear which is 2/3rds from the top = do not extensively bolt as it will weaken the beam.

How should joists be supported?

On each end by a beam, a ledger, or metal hangers.

Sometimes nailing directly to a facer is sometimes okay for smaller decks.

Why is bridging used?

Sometimes between joists to minimize lateral movement, especially if joist spans are long.

How are joists spaced?

Typically close together between 16 and 24 inches because of the limited span of decking members.

What are beams?

Function to support the weight of joists and decking, transfer the load to posts or directly to a foundation.

How are beams spaced?

Directly related to the allowable span of the members they are directly supporting, whether joists or decking in a plank and beam frame.

Typically, they are spaced 6 to 8 feet apart in plank and beam framing or 8 to 16 feet apart in platform framing.

What are typical beam support systems?

Simple beam: rests on a support at each end.

Cantilevered beam: supported at one end only.

Overhanging beam: projects beyond one or both supports.

Continuous beam: rests on three or more supports.

Fixed beam: fixed at both ends.

What weight do posts carry?

Carry the weight of the entire deck structure to the foundation. Control the finished elevation of a deck or boardwalk. Or not used if the deck or boardwalk can rest directly on a foundation.

What is the benefit of a square post?

Has less propensity to wist or warp.

What happens if posts are incorrectly sized?

They can buckled and under very heavy loading conditions, crush.

How to minimize moisture infiltration at the exposed top end of wood posts?

Angle cutting , capping or covering.

What are footings in deck or boardwalk design?

Footings anchor a deck or boardwalk to the ground, supporting its weight and its expected live load.

In cold climates, footings must extend below the line of maximum frost to prevent movement.

If attached to stabilized structures, footings aid in stabilizing.

Expansive soils require pier-and-beam foundations.

Footing size depends on weight and load-bearing capacity of the soil.

How is post height measured?

From the top of the footing to the bottom of the beam to which it is attached.

What is the tributary area load?

The total weight carried by the post, including the wood species, height, and cross-sectional area.

The sizing of the post carrying the most load is typically used to determine the post size for all other deck posts.

The post spacing distance is multiplied by the beam spacing distance to determine the center tributary area in a symmetrically loaded deck.

How should posts be attached to concrete pier footings?

Using coated metal fasteners, designed to allow air circulation around the post bottom.

What bolt is used to secure a deck to the ledger?

Lag bolt