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52 Cards in this Set

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  • Back

Curing Methods

- Frequent sprinkling with water

- Covering the concrete with polyethylene film or waterproof Kraft paper

- Covering with wet burlap or wheat straw

- Spraying a membrane forming curing compound on the surface


Material used to speed up the setting of mortar


- Controls the properties of the concrete

- It is the inclusion of water (hydration) into the product that causes concrete to set, stiffen, and become hard

Green Concrete

- Freshly poured concrete that has not yet cured

- Generally considered green for 8-48 hours after it has set

Soil-Cement Linings

- Constructed with mixtures of sandy soil, cement and water, which hardens to a concrete like material

- The cement content should be from 2-8% of the soil by volume

Pressure Test

Measures the air trapped within the mortar of the concrete mixture

Chace Air Indicator
Simple and inexpensive way to check the approximate air content of freshly mixed concrete

Kelly Ball

- A device for determining the consistency of fresh concrete

- Sometimes used as an alternative to the slump test

Schmidt Hammer Test

- This test gives an estimate of the concrete's compressive strength

- This test is performed in situations where the concrete has already been poured and a cylinder test is not possible


- 1 part cement, 2 parts sand, 3 parts coarse aggregate

- Used for concrete roads and waterproof structures


- 1 part cement, 2 parts sand, 4 parts coarse aggregate

- Used for reinforced work floors, roofs, columns, arches, tanks, sewers, conduits, etc.


- 1 part cement, 2.5 parts sand, 5 parts coarse aggregate

- Used for foundations, walls, abutment, piers, etc.


- 1 part cement, 3 parts sand, 6 parts coarse aggregate

- Used for all mass concrete work, large foundations, backing for stone masonry, etc.

Cement Types

1. Type I Normal

2. Type II Moderate

3. Type III High Early Strength

4. Type IV Low Heat

5. Type V Sulfate Resisting

6. Types IA, IIA, and IIIA

Decorative Concrete

1. Acid stain (chemical stain)

2. Decorative aggregate

3. Dyes

4. Stamped concrete

5. Stenciled concrete

Acid Stain

A stain containing inorganic salts dissolved in an acidic, water-based solution that reacts chemically with the minerals in hardened concrete to produce permanent, transparent colors that will not peel or flake. Colors tend to be earth tones, such as tans, browns, reddish browns, and greens.
Decorative Aggregate

Richly colored natural stones, such as ballast, granite, quartz, or limestone, used to enhance exposed aggregate concrete or decorative toppings


- Translucent color solutions containing very fine pigments that penetrate into the concrete surface

- Will not chemically react with concrete (like acid stains will)

Stamped Concrete

Concrete flatware that is patterned with platform tools, stamping mats, or seamless texturing skins to resemble materials such as brick, slate, stone, tile, and wood planking

Stenciled Concrete

- A decorative surface treatment using heavy-duty paper stencils with stone, tile, or brick patterns that are lightly pressed into fresh concrete, followed by the application of dry-shake color hardeners

- Another technique is to apply adhesive stencils and then color or sandblast the surface

Adhesive stencils
Adhesive backed masking patterns made of vinyl/plastic used for creating stenciled concrete effects. The adhesive keeps the patterns firmly in place on the concrete surface while the decorative treatment of choice is applied, such as acid stains, dyes, spray-down systems, etching gels, or sandblasting
Function of Mortar

- Bonding agent that integrates brick into a masonry assembly

- Helps to create a water resistant barrier

- Accommodates dimensional variations and physical properties of the brick

- Bond with steel reinforcement, metal ties, and anchor bolts so that they perform integrally with the masonry

- Permits some movement between units

- Allows for the use of ties and reinforcing to the unit

- Enhances the aesthetics through color and texture

Mortar Characteristics

- Used as a joining medium in masonry, wood, or other material, joining them into a unified mass

- Limited life 1.5-2 hours

- Mixture gradually hardens when exposed to the air

- Must fill joint completely to create a watertight and strong wall

Mortar Types

1. Type N

2. Type S

3. Type M

4. Type O

Type N

- Used in general masonry walls above grade

- Used in non-structural applications in new construction

- Has good bond qualities and good resistance to water penetration

- Recommended for chimneys and exterior walls subjected to severe weather

Type S

- Typically used in structural masonry applications

- Recommended for use in masonry where maximum flexural strength is required for chimneys and load bearing masonry constructions

- Very high tensile bond strength

- Excellent for masonry subject to severe weather

Type M

- Typically used only in below grade applications

- Very high in compressive strength and durability, but low in tensile strength and poor workability

Type O

- Relatively low compressive strength mortar suitable for non exposed locations and general interior use in load bearing and non-load bearing masonry

- Should not be used where it is subject to freezing


- Used to describe the installation of tile with all materials except Portland cement mortar, which is the only recognized thick-bed method

- Applied to subfloor (1/8" thin set mortar)

- Set same size stones generally 1/4" on top

- Can be placed on either concrete or wood subfloors


- Used to describe a thick layer of mortar (more than 1/2") that is used for leveling

- Apply thick layer of mortar 3/4" to subfloor

- Set in mortar in 2 ways

1. Allowed to become semi-wet then set

2. Allowed to dry completely and then stone is set with a thin layer of dry-set mortar on top of the first

- Can be bonded directly to subfloor

- Can be separated from subfloor with a cleavage membrane usually a steel reinforcing mesh in the mortar bed


- Cementitious or other type material used for filling joints between tile and stone

- Flexible material that allows for floor expansion

- Mixed in the same proportions as a Portland cement mortar, but does not contain hydrated lime


Water and cement
Bonding Agent Types

1. Bituminous binder

2. Casein glues

3. Construction adhesive

4. Contact Cements

5. Epoxy

6. High-Tech adhesives

7. Wall panel adhesives

8. White Glue

Bituminous binder

A class of black or dark-colored solid, semi-solid or viscous cementitious substances, natural or manufactured, composed principally of high molecular weight hydrocarbons (asphalt, tars, pitches, and asphaltites) used to cement loose materials together

Casein Glues

Slow setting, permitting easier construction of difficult assemblies

Construction Adhesive

- A high performance adhesive for multi-purpose in most interior and exterior construction projects

- Bonds all wood to wood assemblies

- Waterproof and weather proof

- Reduces Nail Pops

- Permanent bond

Contact Cements

Useful for applying laminates and edge stripping to plywood


- Comes in two parts which you mix together -- resin and hardener-- with varying setting times

- When fully cured, they provide a very tough, durable coating of high adhesive, cohesive, tensile and compression strength an are resistant to water, moisture and most chemicals

- Most are not formulated for wood

- Used as a bonding agent to adhere new concrete to old surfaces; to rebond or weld structural units together

High-Tech Adhesives

- Stronger than white glue, formulated to bond a variety of materials together including non-porous to vitreous glass to glazed ceramic

- May be water based (non-toxic) or solvent based (toxic)

Wall Panel Adhesives

- Handy for applying decorative paneling or facing

- May require a few nails per panel

White Glue

- A general class of glues which as a rule are non-toxic, washable, and which dry clear

- Best used for bonding semi-porous and porous materials

Joint Sealants

1. Asphalt

2. Silicone

3. Performed

4. Fuel Resistant

Asphalt Joint Sealants

- Hot poured liquid sealants

- Least expensive of the sealants

- Lifespan from 5-8 years

- Traffic can resume on the pavement once the sealant has cooled

Silicone Sealants

- Cold applied

- Highly flexible for transverse contraction and expansion joints, longitudinal, center line, and shoulder joints

- Last longer, from 10-15 years

Performed Joint Sealants (Compressive Seals)

- Most expensive joint sealants

- Lasts up to 20 years

- No curing time necessary

Fuel Resistant Sealants

- More specialized type of sealant

- Made with silicone or coal tar

- Exhibit no physical or chemical change when exposed to fuels

- Commonly used in apron areas in airports, and even roadway bridge applications

Concrete Block: 3 Types

1. Solid load bearing: No more than 25% of the cross sectional area is occupied by voids

2. Hollow load bearing: May have 40-50% of the cross sectional area occupied by voids

3. Hollow non-load bearing: Void space may occupy more than 50%

Hollow load bearing is most used for landscape and building construction.

Horizontal Joint Reinforcement

Used in masonry walls to:

- Control shrinkage cracks

- Bond multi-wythe walls together

- To anchor masonry veneer to backup masonry or wall

- To increase the structural strength of the wall

For exterior applications, masonry ties should be corrosion resistant. Galvanized or stainless steel should be required. 9 gauge standard wire is most common.

- Reinforcing material should be 2" less than the width of the wall

- Horizontal joint reinforcing should not be continued through control joints in the masonry

- Masonry veneers are usually tied to the back-up every 3 feet on center horizontally and every 16-18" vertically.

Isolation or expansion joints

- Used to permit differential movement between adjacent structural elements (wall and pavement, 2 pavements)

- Not required at regular intervals in paving or walls

- Extend for full depth or width of the concrete

- Usually consists of pre-molded fiber strips (1/4" x 3/8" and 1/2") placed flush or slightly recessed from the concrete surface

Control or Contraction Joints

- Provides a weakened place for cracking to occur

- Located at intervals in both horizontal and vertical concrete

- Length between joints should not exceed 1-1/2 times the width between the joints (12-15" usually the maximum)

- May be hand tooled while still plastic or sawn after hardening

- Should extend to 1/4 the depth of the concrete

Construction Joints

- Used where installation work is suspended for more than 30 minutes

- May be tooled to resemble control joint and butter together for light-duty slabs

- Keys or dowels used to prevent differential movement

- Joint sealants sometimes used to prevent freezing water from entering the joint silicone rubber and polyurethane sealants common

Concrete Masonry Units (CMU)

Grade N- suitable for use in all exposed weather locations above and below grade

Grade S- not suitable for use in exposed weather locations

Structural quality- based on the moisture content of the units

Type I- Most restrictive in terms o moisture content allowed

Type II- Not restricted to a certain moisture content level

For most exterior landscape applications, Grade N-I units should be specified