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170 Cards in this Set

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What is the sequence of construction activities dictated by drawings?

1. Preliminary surveying

2. Tree protection, temporary conditions, erosion control, and transplanting

3. Clearing, grubbing and demolition

4. Topsoil stripping and stockpiling

5. Rough grading

6. Finish grading

7. Installation of site improvements

8. Planting and seeding

What does preliminary surveying include?

Verification of major dimensions by contractor. This includes staking of the limit of work to establish the disturbed area perimeter. This most often requires anti-siltation barriers and filters to be placed at low points to prevent construction site run-off from contaminating adjacent land and streams. Also includes roadway geometry, property boundaries, construction limit line, stockpiling areas, and other horizontal measurements.

What does clearing, grubbing and demolition include?

All trees, shrubs, rock outcrops, slabs, structures and utility lines within the project area that are to be abandoned or moved are designed on the drawing for removal by the contractor.

What is topsoil stripping and stockpiling?

The contractor removes all topsoil within the grading limits and stockpiles the soil in whatever areas will be convenient for future respreading at the completion of the project. Typically stripped to a depth of four to six inches. In areas previously compacted by vegetative clearing and demolition activities, the soil is scarified to loosen the embedded topsoil before it is removed.

What is rough grading?

Blasting, trenching, backfilling and cutting and filling to the proposed new subgrade, the contractor prepares all subgrade surfaces to receive foundation footings and subbase material for below- and on-grade structures. Trenching for utility lines also occurs at this stage. The top elevations of manholes and drains are set at their approximate grades without final brick course shims or rims.

What happens after rough grading?

All exterior surfaces are cut or filled to specified rough-grade tolerance (between six and twelve inches). They are then ready for final grading prior to placing the topsoil and the wearing surfaces (for example, concrete, asphalt, etc.).

What is final grading?

Project is staked out and resurveyed to establish the finished geometry and the elevations of walks, roads, and other edges. Paved areas are then graded to finer tolerances, and base material is installed. Topsoil is spread over the rough grades in the planted areas to within a tolerance of one to three inches. Major planting of trees and all other activities which require hauling have been completed before final grading.

What does general demolition include?

All designated structures, such as existing buildings, pavements, curbs, walls, fences, site structures, buried utility basins, pipes and conduits, are typically removed from the new construction zone. If local regulations permit, selected footings, basements and basins may be fille and burried.

What does selective demolition include?

Removal of contaminated structures.

Saw or torch cutting: helps to provide a clean joint between new and old work.

What are three types of equipment typically used for stripping topsoil?

Bulldozers (for smaller areas, or not too far)
Scrapers (for larger areas: needs space to maneuver)
Power Shovels (for embankments or areas too narrow for other machines)

Bulldozers (for smaller areas, or not too far)

Scrapers (for larger areas: needs space to maneuver)

Power Shovels (for embankments or areas too narrow for other machines)

What is a backhoe used for?

Trenching for utilities, architectural piers.

Trenching for utilities, architectural piers.

What is a power auger used for?

For holes up to 24 inches in diameter.

For holes up to 24 inches in diameter.

What is a chain bucket trencher used for?

Digging electrical conduit trenches.

Digging electrical conduit trenches.

What is ripping?

An alternative to blasting for rock removal. A hydraulic steel ripping knife is mounted on the rear of a track bulldozer.

An alternative to blasting for rock removal. A hydraulic steel ripping knife is mounted on the rear of a track bulldozer.

How is fill placed?

Typically the area designated to receive fill is scarified to create a mechanical bond between the subgrade and the new fill. Fill is then placed in specified layers or lifts of six to twelve inches and compacted by appropriate machinery to the specified density of 95 percent so that the rate of infiltration and bearing capacity will resemble that of undisturbed earth. Compaction method depends on soil type.

How is clay soil compacted?

Commonly compacted using a tractor drawn sheepsfoot roller. High density compaction requires 8 to 12 passes.

Commonly compacted using a tractor drawn sheepsfoot roller. High density compaction requires 8 to 12 passes.

How is granular soil compacted?

They must be rolled and vibrated using steel or rubber tire rollers. Typically 4 to 6 passes are required to achieve the appropriate compaction density.

They must be rolled and vibrated using steel or rubber tire rollers. Typically 4 to 6 passes are required to achieve the appropriate compaction density.

What is general fill?

Usually subsoil taken from on-site cut and must be structurally suitable to avoid differential settlement or excessive swelling.

What is trench or foundation backfill?

Requires controlled lifts and careful compaction to avoid differential settlement and trench wall slump. Sand is typically used for pipe and aggregates are typically used for perforated drain bedding. Should contain graduated particle sizes and not contain large stones, which could create air pockets.

What is structural fill?

Typically placed under building floor slabs and requires very stringent placement and compaction. Consists of graded aggregate base material placed in six inch lifts and vibrated and rolled to achieve 95 percent density. should not exceed three feet.

What is generally included in a perforated drain pipe trench?

They are frequently lined with a fabric separator to prevent fines from entering the stone drainage medium. The fabric is folded over the top of the pipe stone before the trench is backfilled to the surface.

What is placed in paved or surfaced areas with clay soils?

A fabric separator may be placed on the subgrade to reinforce the base to guard against subgrade deformation and lateral subbase creep.

How is the aggregate base placed?

for roads and parking lots, aggregate is placed on the prepared subgrade using the largest dump truck possible, spread by bulldozer or road grader to achieve 6 to 8 inch lifts. Concrete or stone curbing may be set on the prepared subbase, in antic...

for roads and parking lots, aggregate is placed on the prepared subgrade using the largest dump truck possible, spread by bulldozer or road grader to achieve 6 to 8 inch lifts. Concrete or stone curbing may be set on the prepared subbase, in anticipation of the aggregate base course and the finish pavement course. A road grader is used to smooth out compacted fill areas and subbase material.

How is the aggregate base placed on walks and plazas?

Typically use a single course aggregate base which is spread by hand and vibrated with a flat plate vibrating power compactor after paving edges or forms are set. 

Typically use a single course aggregate base which is spread by hand and vibrated with a flat plate vibrating power compactor after paving edges or forms are set.

How is asphalt installed?

Typically in two courses. The base course i placed on a prepared aggregate base which often has been penetrated with a heated asphalt oil to ensure proper adhesion of the asphalt base course to the aggregate.

How is concrete installed?

Most concrete paving requires reinforcement: either steel mesh or bars to be placed between form edges. For maximum reinforcement, the steel reinforcing should be lifted off of the aggregate base by means of metal chair clips, taking care that the steel remains covered by at least two inches of concrete. Expansion joints should be placed in formwork to isolate slabs and walks every 25 feet.

How are unit pavers and stone installed?

Need to be placed on an adequately prepared aggregate base between secured edge restrainers to prevent lateral creep during loading over time.

What is included in site furnishings?

Encompasses installation of most above ground fixtures and design elements such as light fixtures, fences, and gates, signs, benches, drinking fountains, road and parking appurtenances, etc. May include connecting proprietary fixtures to previously wired concrete piers, attaching benches to slabs or piers, etc.

When does planting installation occur?

Generally, large trees are planted after subgrades have been set and aggregate bases have been placed so that large equipment will have solid bearing and not destroy any finished work. Trees planted early in the process must be placed with a grade stake to ensure that the tree ball will align with the final topsoil or plaza finish grade, and that top soil or mulch be piled around the exposed tree ball to prevent drying before finish grading occurs.

When are shrubs planted?

Usually just before finish grading and seeding.

When is jute matting used?

Stapled over seeded embankments, especially those subject to periodic flooding adjacent to large swales or river banks. Steep banks may be hydro-seeded using saturated paper mulch, or blown-on straw mulch to hold seed and promote moisture retention.

How low might subgrades be at the end of cut and fill?

They may be 12 to 18 inches below finish grade.

When does the placement of sanitary and storm sewer basins and pipes begin?

After cut and fill so that outfalls may be connected to subsequent building drains, site curtain drains, and other temporary dewatering and construction runoff filtering systems.

Typically, how far should electrical lines be buried?

At least 2 feet.

Typically, how deep should irrigation lines be buried?

12 to 18 inches deep.

What is included on an existing conditions plan?

Also known as a survey.

Includes all existing site features.

Datum for reference.

Contours and spot elevations, including ridges and swales, invert elevations, names of water bodies.

Property lines with bearings, easements, setbacks, benchmarks.

Right-of-Way and function

Zoning and Land use, setbacks

Buildings or other structures and their elevations.

Utilities, above and below ground. Includes fire hydrants, manholes, valves, wells, etc.

Total acres.

Existing vegetation. Includes trees canopies, caliper and species and state of health.

Soil boring data, including locations and number.

Archeological and important natural features such as wetlands.

What soil information should be included in an existing conditions plan?

Underlying geological situation.

Soil type and capability: bearing capacity (can it handle a foundation), permeability (is there infiltration or runoff and how much), quality (can crops or plants grow).

What is an appropriate slope ratio for structures, play areas, and sports fields?

2 to 5 percent

What is a zero to one percent slope good for?

Poor drainage in all areas. Okay for building, play or sports in some circumstances.

What is a six to fifteen percent slope good for?

Okay for some structures and some free play activities?

What is a slope that is generally not considered buildable?

15 percent.

What information is included in soil boring logs?

Boring location, time, date, site condition at time of sampling, including weather, type and depth of boring, type of drilling method, sampling method, sample recovery, soil density or consistency, soil color, grain size, particle shape, classification, sedimentary structure, layer boundaries and thickness and transitions between two types of soils, blow counts, depth to bedrock, depth to groundwater (indicated during drilling by wet or saturated soil moisture content and after drilling), plasticity, moisture, topsoil (A horizon) thickness, photos.

What is a soil boring used for?

For new construction: to evaluate soils, subsoils, other elements in the soil profile prior to construction. To provide direction for design and construction. Determine impenetrable layers such as bedrock, what is the depth to groundwater, what types of soils are present - can they be used, will they need to be modified or exported. Permeability for water.

Existing areas: diagnose soil problems.

What is the AASHTO sieve number for gravel?

Number 4 and the sieve size is 4.75 millimeters

What is the AASHTO sieve number for sand?

Sieve number 200 and the sieve size is 0.075 millimeters

What is live staking?

Insertion and tamping of live, rootable-cuttings into the ground. Repairs small earth slumps that are frequently wet. as the stakes root, they create a stabilizing mat that reinforces the soi.

What are live fascines?

Long bundles of branch cuttings bound together into sausage-like structures with the branches and bud ends oriented in the same direction. Reduces erosion and face sliding. Placed in shallow trenches parallel to contours for dry slopes and at an angle for wet slopes. Anchored with life and dead stakes.

What is brushlayering?

Similar to live fascine except oriented perpendicular to the slope. Consists of placing live branch cuttings, usually in a crisscross fashion, on small benches excavated into the slope and then covering them with soil.

What is branch packing?

Similar to brushlayers, except with the addition of vertical live staking to improve initial structural stability. Used specifically to repair small, localized slumps or holes.

What is a live cribwall?

Box-like structures fabricated with untreated timbers and filled with layers of live branch cuttings and soil or other appropriate backfill material. Employed in place of low walls at the bottom of cut-or-fill slopes to stabilize the toe of the slope and reduce its overall steepness, providing immediate protection from erosion and sliding.

What are fiber rolls?

Fiber rolls are prefabricated tubes consisting of biodegradable materials such as rice straw, wheat straw, coconut fiber, and wood excelsior bound together by netting. Used at the top, top, and face of a slope to intercept and slow runoff, remove sediment, and release runoff as sheet flow. Should be trenched and staked to operate effectively.

What is a log terrace?

Similar to use as fiber rolls, but are both more rigid and longer lasting. Best used in areas where erosion is already a problem.

Where are gabion baskets used in sediment and erosion control?

In inflow and inlet protections. Stones used are 4 to 7 inches.

What is a stabilized construction entrance or SCE?

Provides a stable area for egress and ingress from construction site. Reduces tracking of sediment onto roadways. Cannot be installed on paved areas. Wash rack is an option for when the typical SCE is not enough and it must drain to an approved sediment trapping device. Berm included to reduce flow out.

What is land grading-benching?

Provides erosion control and vegetative establishment for extreme changes in grade. Need to be free of sediment during construction.

What is vegetative stabilization?

Promotes the establishment of vegetation on exposed soil (disturbed areas) not stabilized by other methods. Adequate vegetative stabilization requires 95 percent ground cover. A temporary dike/swale is placed at the end of each work day to be used until slope is completely stabilized. Silt fence/super silt fence at bottom of slope.

What is soil stabilization matting?

Material used to temporarily or permanently stabilize channels or steep slopes until ground cover is established. Must withstand the flow velocities and shear stresses. Also required on temporary channels with higher velocities.

What sediment and erosion control is used in stockpile areas?

Side slopes not greater than 2:1. Access from upslope side. Runoff must drain to a sediment control practice.

How is an earth dike used in erosion and sedimentation control?

Directs a sediment laden water to traps, diverts clear area away from disturbed areas. For clear water, should be lined with matting or stone.

How is a flow channel or temporary swale stabilized?

Seeded with straw mulch and tack (not for clear water). Seed with soil stabilization matting or line with sod. Or line with 4 to 7 inches of stone.

What is a mountable berm?

An earth mound covered with geotextile and capped with stone. Allows construction vehicles to traverse an earth dike or other sediment control practices.

What is a diversion fence?

Directs sediment laden runoff to a trapping practice. Intercepts and diverts clear water away from disturbed areas. Segments drainage areas. It is a chain link fence (with galvanized steel or aluminum posts) covered with impermeable sheeting.

What is a pipe slope drain?

Safely conveys runoff down the face of a slope. Flow enters at a stone apron with a flared inlet on nonwoven geotextile into a pipe and flow discharges into a stabilized channel, sediment trapping device or into a stable area at a non-erosive velocity.

what is a stone check dam?

Stone weirs constructed in channels to reduce velocity. Check dam spacing is determined via check dam height and natural channel slope. Extends across entire width of channel. These are not replacements for sediment traps. Minimum width one foot. Minimum length, 4 feet. Center is recessed six inches from outer edges.

What is riprap inflow protection?

A channel lined with rock or recycled concrete. Provides stable conveyance of runoff into sediment trapping/ down steep slopes. For slopes steeper than 4 to 1, use gabion inflow protection. Blend rocks into ground.

What is gabion inflow protection?

A channel lined with wire baskets filled with rock. Blend gabion into ground. May be used for permanent inflow protection.

What is a rock outlet protection?

Rock apron placed at points of concentrated discharge to reduce velocity of the discharge to a non-erosive rate.

What is a plunge pool?

Same purpose as rock outlet protection, but preferred where there is space constraint. A plunge pool is either depressed half the size of the culvert rise or the full height of the culvert rise.

What is stormdrain inlet protection?

A filter consisting of stone and/or nonwoven geotextile constructed around a storm drain inlet. Filters sediment laden runoff before it enters storm drain systems. Requires frequent maintenance.

What is curb inlet protection?

Can be nonwoven geotextile and stone at the entrance of the inlet, with sandbags or other to anchor.

What is a filter bag?

A geotextile bag which filters sediment laden water prior to discharge. Aids in dewatering.

How is compost used to prevent erosion, reduce runoff, and increase infiltration, and facilitate plant growth?

A compost blanket. Is a 1 to 3-inch layer of approved compost loosely applied to disturbed soil. A flexible stormwater strategy that can be used successfully to almost any situation producing sheet flow runoff, including steep slopes, rocky soils, frozen ground, and around existing vegetation. They increase the permeability of the site, fill small rills and voids, helping prevent concentrated flow, and promote the growth of temporary or permanent vegetation, increasing site stability.

what is a turf-reinforced matted swale or TRM?

If velocities exceed design conditions of vegetated swales, the matting can be applied to reinforce the vegetation and resist velocities that would otherwise erode. The temporary or permanent matting is applied directly to the seeded, finish grade of the swale. Vegetation sprouts through the firmly anchored material. useful for constrained conditions, where slope or channel dimensions are limiting. If slope is excessively steep, consider a step pool.

What are step pools?

Variation of a swale. Focuses erosive energy to the bottoms of the pools and away from the banks to minimize erosion.

What is a level spreader?

Used to convert concentrated stormwater flow into low-velocity sheet flow. As flow is discharged from a pipe, headwall, swale or other conveyance, it is detained and spread horizontally along a contour by a low, level, nonerodable barrier such as ...

Used to convert concentrated stormwater flow into low-velocity sheet flow. As flow is discharged from a pipe, headwall, swale or other conveyance, it is detained and spread horizontally along a contour by a low, level, nonerodable barrier such as a concrete wall. When the flow fills the storage volume behind the level spreader, it will spill over the spread as low-velocity sheet-flow.low-velocity sheet flow. As flow is discharged from a pipe, headwall, swale or other conveyance, it is detained and spread horizontally along a contour by a low, level, nonerodable barrier such as a concrete wall. When the flow fills the storage volume behind the level spreader, it will spill over the spread as low-velocity sheet-flow.

What is the purpose of erosion control?

To stabilize. Minimize exposed areas, cover with mulch or other temporary measures or vegetation, reinforce with matting to assist vegetative establishment and reduce erosion. Control stormwater flowing onto and through the project. Protecting slopes.

What is the purpose of sediment control?

Control runoff and conveyance, protect inlet and outlet, collect sediment and maintain sediment control. Establish perimeter controls.

What are common objectives of stormwater pollution prevention plans?

1. Stabilize the site as soon as possible.

2. Protect slopes and channels.

3. Reduce impervious surfaces and promote infiltration.

4. Control the perimeter of your site.

5. Protect receiving waters adjacent to your site.

6. Follow pollution prevention measures.

7. Minimize the area and duration of exposed soils. (Construction phasing)

What is included in a tree protection plan?

Identification of existing trees to remain, trees to be removed, trees to be transplanted.

Also includes any details about irrigation that may be interrupted due to construction. Vital to include information about irrigation especially before and after site disturbance has occurred to existing vegetation.

Also includes details about tree protection.

Selective landscape clearing areas.

What are typical types of tree protection?

Fencing around trees based on the dripline. Although recommended to go beyond the dripline, as this estimate is not correct for all trees.

Methods and Practices to safeguard trees. Boxing, compaction mitigation, trees wells, root zone aeration, root pruning and branch pruning. Also trees potentially requiring guying.

What are typical notes on tree protection plans?

1. Limit grading in this area to hand digging, taking care not to disturb roots.

2. Review health of existing tree with city forester prior to initiative removal of existing pavement within drip line.

3. Compaction mitigation may be required within drip line. Coordinate limits with landscape architect and city forester.

What are unique construction management issues with regards to tree protection?

Acceptable locations for topsoil storage.

Acceptable locations for stockpiling project construction materials.

Site construction access route.

What is the construction sequence for grading?

1) Site preparation:

Protection of vegetation and structures to remain

Topsoil removal

Erosion and sediment control

Clearing and Demolition

2) Excavation

Placement of Grade Stakes

Bulk Excavation

3) Backfilling and Fine Grading

4) Finish Surfacing

How should topsoil be stockpiled?

Away from any driplines of trees, within the project limit of work.

If stockpiled for an extended period, it should be seeded and strawed if more than 30 days.

Ideally, not for more than 6 months and not higher than 4 feet.

What should be included in a Layout Plan?

Point of Beginning!

Every proposed component, form and system.

Layout system and hierarchy.

Resolved relationships with other disciplines.

Legal Conditions

Zoning and Code Requirements (such as Firelanes)

Limits of Work

Sheet matchlines

Site reference notes

Enlargement plan references

non-landscape architectural improvement

pavement systems

curbs and gutters



site furniture

railing, fences, metal work

site light (unless site lighting plan included)

planting (but only boundaries)

streets and parking, including striping and ADA

reference to details

What should not be included in a Layout Plan?

Materials information. Unless a very small area project where these plans would be combined.

Planting information - this is included in the planting plan, except for trees that are in the hardscape - show relationship.

Irrigation heads- include in irrigation plan.

Lighting if there is a lighting plan.

How are dimensions laid out?

To read from bottom or right side of sheet.

Given between centerlines, surfaces or from edge of centerline.

To face of walls and at proposed grades.

To centerlines of columns, gridlines, lights, trees, railings and pavement joints.

If veneered wall with irregular finish: include a general note indicating dimension represents an average location of irregular veneer.

How are overhead and below ground improvements shown?

Overhead with full tone dash.

Below ground with screened dash.

How are consultant improvements shown?

Not patterned.

What building details are shown in a layout plan?

Footprint of the building. Unless windows and doors are helpful to landscape.

Column grid for dimensioning.

Are expansion and control joints located in the layout plan?

Yes. Located on layout plan. Referred to in materials plan.

Should dimensions be repeated in the layout plan and any enlargement plans?

No. Just enough to locate on layout plan.

What should be included in a demolition plan?

Items from existing conditions to be removed.

Demolition sequence. Items to be protected.

After removal site condition: erosion control.

What should be included in a site protection and preservation plan?

Soil, existing features, existing pavements, historic elements, vegetation.

use of existing conditions and demolition plan - indicates how any particular site element or situation will be protected or preserved.

This is CD, it has nothing to do with the assessment of whether or not a site or object should be preserved.

Health, Safety, Welfare.

Where should sediment and erosion control fences be located?

Along edge of property line or limit of construction areas.

Where are hay bales used?

In drainage ways.

They should be staked and can be either plastic or wire tied.

Why are detention or retention basins used on a construction site?

To prevent erosion from draining into sensitive ecological areas.

Indicate: location, size relative to watershed to be served by basin, depth - water, top of dam and bottom elevations, shape (length versus width) and direction of drainage flow.

What should be included in a grading plan?

Slopes, differences in elevations, length or distance.


Finish Floor Elevation

Spot elevations at corners of buildings

Spot elevations at critical points, between like contours

High point on a swale

Drain inlet

Step elevations

Slopes of elements

Dams for retention, detention or storage of water (ie: sediment and erosion control plan)



Surface drainage

Subsurface drainage

Dams and Weirs

Visual Screening


Roadways with min and max slopes

What is included in general notes?

Cross-referencing of related drawings.

In general limit the use of notes on drawings. Use specifications for notes except where used on drawings to refer to material or component relationships.

Do not place specific product and manufacturer's name on drawings. Same for strengths and standards. Include this information in specifications.

What is the difference between a layout plan and a materials plan?

The materials plan defines "what" is to be built and the site layout plan defines "where" it is going to be built.

What reference notes are included in a materials plan?

To identify specific interdisciplinary coordination needs, for example, jointing relationships between paving systems and facade elements or to call attention to specific items require special consideration during construction.

What is a key graphic element of a materials plan?

The use of symbols and patterns to distinguish and define the limits of materials and components. All elements should be drawn to scale and include elements such as furnishings, lighting, drainage structures. Notes for paving also include finish type (in either the materials legend or with a keynote if there are several finishes for one pavement type).

What else is included extensively in materials plans?

Detail references to sections, elevations, details.

Pavement sectional changes (ie: from 4 inches to 6 inches).

What are the major functions of plant materials?


Environmental modifications (mitigating erosive slopes or contaminated sites)


Circulation control

Production (food, flowers and building materials)

Bioengineering and other forms of structural mitigation

What is a specimen planting?

A plant that is chosen for the high visual quality of texture, color or form. Can provide a crucial focal point in the landscape.

How is a specimen plant generally installed?

As a mature plant, when its true form and unique, individual character has begun to emerge; thus it is more expensive than planting used for massing.

What is the typical cost of plantings versus hardscape?

Plants can be used in many of the same ways as 'hard' building materials - to form outdoor walls, ceilings, fences, etc. Although they may require more space on a site, plants are typically less expensive to buy and install than hardscape materials and can require less maintenance.

What are some safety considerations when selecting plants?

Poisonous plants

Litter-producing plants

Weak-branched plants (think ice storm)

Plants with drooping branches (hanging over walkways)

Plants with shallow roots (sidewalk heaving)

Thorned plants

Plants that attract insects

What percentage of a certain plant genus should be included on a site?

10 percent

To create a diverse plant community that has a healthy resiliency to attack by insects or disease, especially in urban tree applications

What types of tree protection is recommended during construction?

Before site work begins, install tree protection. This can either be a barrier around the plant, enclosing an area as large as the root zone of the plant/s to be protected.

If a barrier is not possible, it is also possible to install plywood boards with three to six inches of fill on top over the root zone layer. This helps reduce compaction around the tree by equipment. Boards 2 inches thick are also installed around the trunk, with burlap wrapped under the boards.

Another method is to use corrugated metal culvert section around the tree, driven in with metal T bar stakes to the dripline.

How should planting holes be constructed?

They should be shallow and wide.

At least two times wider than the root ball, but no deeper.

Should be planted higher than where it was planted (versus lower).

The rootball should be placed on firm subsoil to prevent settling.

How should a tree be planted?

Non-biodegradable nursery wrapping that is plastic or wire around the roots should be completely removed.

Burlap can be left in place if the top third of the root ball is unwrapped.

Container plants should be planted as quickly as possible. The white root tips are crucial to the growing system and damaged by even brief exposure to air.

When should plants be installed?

Plants installed in the fall benefit from warm soils, stored energy and a long dormant period for good root establishment before the stresses of summer heat and drought. A few species are not recommended for fall planting and are referred to as 'fall hazards'.

Should trees be pruned at planting time?

Only dead or damaged branches and those that threaten the appearance and branching structure should be removed.

For forest-collected stock, removing a third of the upper branches can be beneficial. But not for container grown plants.

Is trunks wrapping recommended?

No. They can harbor pests and hold moisture.

What position should trees be planted?

Same direction they grew in to avoid sun burn after planting.

What kind of soil should be backfilled into a planting pit?

Same soil that was removed. Some amendments may inhibit the root penetration of surrounding soil and slow overall growth due to poor capillarity. Fill material should be thoroughly watered as it is bakcfilled into the hole to remove any air pockets. Soil should be firm enough to support the root ball, but not packed to the point that the tiny pores that hold water and air between soils particles disappear. Watering berms may help collect and deliver water to the root ball.

What guidelines are used to establish plant material standards?

American Standard for Nursery Stock, published by the American Association of Nurserymen.

What type of container grown stock will not be accepted?

Any root-bound material. This will lead to girdling and eventual death.

What is an anti-desicant spray?

Adds a protective waxy coating to the leaves of broadleaf evergreens to help slow the process of transpiration. Prevents a common winter injury.

How much mulch should be installed around planting material?

3 to 4 inches spread 5 to 7 feet around trees and less around other plantings. Bare soil should be left at the base of the plant to avoid trunk suffocation or rot.

When should staking be removed?

After the second growing season.

What is an espalier?

A fruit tree or ornamental shrub whose branches are trained to grow flat against a wall. Supported on a lattice or a framework of stakes. Plant stem is planted as close as possible to wall, while allowing six inches between the wall and plant for air circulation.

What governs if a planting plan drawing has more plants than in the planting list or schedule?

The drawing governs.

The schedule is for the convenience of the contractor and needs to be counted.

What is included in a planting plan?

Existing site conditions to remain, including trees, shrubs and undergrowth (no need to show protective fencing, etc. but otherwise graphically same as tree protection plan.

Existing wetlands/ waterways

Proposed hardscape site improvements that may interface with tree planting work.

Propose site drainage and grading.

Location of irrigation controller and backflow preventer and quick couplers. Coordinated with irrigation.

Tree trenches, vaults or pits.

Subdrainage for tree pits and tree beds, referenced to the site grading and drainage plan.

The trees and tree call outs have the heaviest line weight. The existing conditions are screened and the proposed hardscape, grading and utilities are much lighter.

What is included in the tree planting list?

Abbreviation of tree


Botanical Name

Common name

Type of tree (b&)

Size (by caliper, pot size or height)

Notes (concerning the delivery method or other unique conditions association with tree or installation.

What are included in the notes of the tree planting list?

Standard terms and requirements as inclued in teh Americna Stnadard for Nursery Stock.

Includes practices for selected species.

Type refers to delivery method and comments represents characteristics of the tree.

For example, type could be balled and burlapped, bare root, boxed, bundle, transplant, seedling, container or cutting.

Comments could include: well branched, straight trunk, strong central leader, full trees, full specimens, multi-stem, single stem, field collected, no shearing, spacing as indicated.

Should one be generic or specific with specification information on the tree planting plan or details?

One should be generic. These do not include proprietary, technical, or descriptive references. For example, mulches may be referenced on plans with Site Detail Keynotes as Mulch 1, Mulch, 2 and so on. Soil should be referenced with terms that precisely match specification references, for example, existing topsoil, imported topsoil, backfill or structural soil.

What should one do especially urban tree planting conditions?

Verify that the American Standard for Nursery Stock minimum root ball dimensions are satisfied relative to specified caliper. For example, for each inch of caliper, ten inches of root diameter is required. A 4-inch caliper tree is required to be delivered with a 40 inch diameter ball. Confirm that the designed pavement opening will allow a 40-inch diameter to be placed, including room to handle the tree for installation and potential removal.

On what plan should edging be included?

On shrubs and groundcover plan. Only include layout dimensions and curves on this (one!) plan. If the relationship to hardscape is essential, include on layout plan. But only one one plan.

Where should general information about trees, shrubs and other planting material be located?

General information should be included as general planting notes on the General Information Sheet.

What size are trees shown on a planting plan?

3/4 mature size. Therefore, a 40 foot wide tree is shown at 30 feet.

What size are shrubs shown on a shrubs and groundcovers plan?

Shrubs are shown at half to 3/4 mature size.

Where is pavement joint information located?

Joints and to scale spacing of joints are graphically shown on the Materials Plan. However, the dimensions between joints are located on the Layout Plan. If pavement joints are too small to identify, identify only by Site Detail Keynote reference and detail definition. Utilizing a symbol to distinguish different joint information. The symbols should be located on the General Information Sheet and include a Site Detail note reference for the "Expansion Joint at Paver" detail.

What is shown on the Site Materials Plan?

Building Footprint, pavement materials

Pedestrian and vehicular pavement systems

Pavement jointing patterns

Curb and ramp types

Wall types

Handrails and guardrails

Site Furnishings

Wall cap jointing (identify individual cap pieces where used, ie: precast or stone units),

Limits of pavement sectional changes such as from 4 inch thick to 6 inch thick

Post locations

Planting Area (generically with a consistent hatch and identified as P.A. or planting area) Do not shown detailed landscape planting materials such as planting, mulch or subdrainage.

What regulatory requirements might be crosschecked with a Materials Plan?

A.D.A. compliance such as handrails, guardrails, fire lanes, etc.

Review of current ADA requirements for material requirements, including audible, visual and tactical devices; slip resistance, detectable surfaces; and ensure compliance where regulated.

Identify, review and comply with codes that address requirements for signs, pavement striping, and curb painting. These may be depicted in Other's drawings.

What regulatory requirements should be crosschecked with the planting plans?

Plant selection meets zoning and landscape requirements of the local municipality (for example, minimum planting area, usually a percentage, of the overall site acreage) or spspecific number of shrubs per street frontage of parking are of minimum planting sizes.

Verify that plant palette is approved by agencies with jurisdiction over the project. For example, wetlands specialists or forestry or parks department.

Verify that it complies with any design guidelines.

What is included in the General Notes?

General notes are general.

Provide information that is so general that it cannot be specifically placed in the specifications, nor precisely located on plans or details.

Specific notes are referred to as reference notes

General notes represent general standards.

General notes are explicit and/or measurable.

General discipline notes are specific to and categorized by discipline.

What is included on the General Information Sheet?

General Notes about the overall project.

General notes about each additional sheet (Plant Protection and Removal Plan, Site Demolition Plan, etc).

List of Abbreviations

Linetype legend

Symbols legend

Site Demolition legend

Materials legend

Grading legend

Soils legend

Lighting legend

Planting legend, Keynote legend

Plant Identification Key

Plant List (no quantities here)

Site Construction Mockups

What do site details include?

Communicate three-dimensional requirements for constructing the site work, as a discrete and itemized set of detailed technical drawings. Requirements for form, size and generic materials are included.

Illustrate sizes, shapes and relationships between construction systems and components. Materials, joining methods, and dimensions of components are described. Material properties or proprietary information should not be included on drawings.

What is the subject detail?

The element named in the detail title.

Should rebar be shown in a construction detail?

If the landscape architects is contracted by the client to define reinforcement requirements, incorporate explicit recommendations from an engineer.

If the landscape architect is NOT contracted by the client, do not show or label the rebar. Include a note such as "Refer to Structural details for information." Do not replicate engineer's drawings for reference.

What is the objective of the site phasing plan?

To communicate the position of the project site within its immediate context, illustrating, and labeling adjoining streets, properties, land uses, and other relevant contextual factors that may affect the design proposal or its implementation.

What is included in a phasing plan?

Survey base, limits of work

Perimeter existing conditions immediately adjoining the project site to understand relationships on and off site

on-site existing conditions to remain

proposed buildings

proposed site improvements

Project phasing defined by geographical areas and relative sequencing

How is the preliminary project phasing illustrated?

Outlined with heavy line, defining enclosed area with clear work limits.

What are strategies to consider when selecting a phasing sequence?

Establishment of "upfront" value, reflecting either visual impressions or site usability.

Construction access and staging.

User access and circulation.

Relationships between site development and associated building phasing.

Depending on the scale and complexity, what can be included on utility plans?

1. Stormwater drainage: surface and conduit systems.

2. Subdrainage: tile fields, footings, etc.

3. Sewerage: sanitary sewer and septic systems.

4. Water distribution: drinking, irrigation, fountains and fire control.

5. Electrical layout: lighting and outlets.

6. Buried cables: telephone, electrical, optic, cable TV.

7. Special waste drains: chemical/acid, petroleum

8. Steam and heat lines: pipes, expansion joints, and heat cables.

9. Fuel lines: natural gas and petroleum.

What scale are details drawn at?

half a foot to One foot to one and a half inches equals one foot

How are details grouped?

It is helpful to group details of like subjects together, such as pavements, wall, and stairs. Helps show differences between similar sections more vividly.

Should information provided in specifications also be included in the details?


What size are plan enlargements shown?

One inch equals twenty feet or one inch equals ten feet.

What is shown in road profiles and sections?

A section along the roadway centerline and designation of finish and existing grades fifty to one hundred foot stations along that line.

Shows the location and length of:

1. all vertical parabolic curves

2. horizontal curves by symbol

3. superelevation

4. high and low points

5. top of curb

6. bottom of gutter lines

What should be included on a final grading plan?

1. Final road profiles

2. Change of direction or rate of slopes

3. Show spot elevations for all critical points, including manholes, inverts, draining structures, tops and bottoms of all walls, steps, and curbs at intersections and/or other critical points.

4. Draw proposed contours and complete the final grading plan.

5. Complete an estimate of the amount of cut and fill based upon the proposed grading plan, and, if needed, adjust the amount of one or the other to make them balance.

Are existing utilities to remain included in the grading plan?

Yes. They are included to provide information to contractors to the subgrade conditions that may impact grading operations.

Also included are subgrade drainage pipe locations and elevations to serve landscape drainage, with direction of flow, and connections to the civil drainage system. Landscape drainage areas include tree and plant pits, drains behind site walls, and other drains in the landscape architect's geographical work areas.

What hardscape information is included on grading plans?

Final spot elevations for all building thresholds, all corners of spaces and areas, grade transition areas, tops and bottoms of walls, rim elevations of all drain inlets and key coordination like tops of curbs.

What is the correct order of a three-part specification by heading?

1. General

2. Product

3. Execution

What components of the environment do people use to orient themselves?






Wayfinding is used to do what?

Allow users to acquire both route and survey knowledge of an area?

What is route knowledge?

From a viewpoint within an environment, and consists of a linear sequence of turn actions at particular locations.

What is survey knowledge?

From an imagined viewpoint above an environment, and is an interconnected and hierarchical network. More flexible than route knowledge - allows people to identify shortcuts and new routes.

What elements are components of a wayfinding program?



Operational elements

What are nine wayfinding strategies?

Track following (line on the floor)

Route following (verbal directions)

Educated seeking (gas station)

Inference (street number)

Screening (finding the correct hotel)

Aiming (seeing a destination and moving towards it)

Map reading

Compassing (cardinal directions)

Social navigation (observing other people's behavior - finding a subway)

What regulatory program should be consulted in wayfinding programming?

MUTCD by the Federal Highway Administration.

Provides standards used nationwide to implement signage on roadways.

What placement considerations should take place with wayfinding signs?

1. that they do not compete with other signs or elements in the landscape

2. that they provide adequate decision-making time

3. that they are not partially obstructed by vegetation, buildings or other signs.

4. that they can be seen with the vertical and horizontal viewing range of the average person.

What is the typical viewing height for a person?

A driver's average viewing height is 4 feet six inches

A sitting person is 4 feet 3 inches

and pedestrians' typical viewing height is 5 feet 6 inches.

What is the minimum viewing time to read a word of the message?

a quarter to half a second per word.

Therefore, travelers at speeds between 25 and 45 miles per hour are only able to read three messages or lines of information.

Where should an arrow be placed on a sign?

On the side of the direction in which a viewer is being sent.

What is the ideal height of lettering on signs?

1 inch for every 25 feet of viewing distance

What type of footing is used in signage?

Concrete or masonry footing or direct burial.

Installation in hardscape or concrete should include base plates and anchor bolts to allow removal and repair. Installations on roadways and within the public right-of-way should include break-away post bases.

How high should signs be located?

Along pedestrian paths: a minimum of 7 feet of clearance from the bottom of the sign.