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303 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back

What is included in Division Zero?

Introductory Information, Bidding Requirements, Contracting Requirements

What is included in Division Zero in the Introductory Information?

Title Page

Certifications Page

Table of Contents

What is included in Division Zero in the Bidding Requirements?

Bid Solicitation - advertisement and invitation to bid

Instructions to Bidders

Information Available to Bidders

Bid Forms and Supplements

What is included in Divison Zero in the Contracting Requirements?


General Conditions of the Contract

Supplementary Conditions of the Contract

Bonds and Certificates

Specifications Divisions

Division Zero: Introductory Information, Bidding Requirements, Contracting Requirements

Division 01: General Requirements

Divisions 02-49: Technical Specifications

What is a Project Manual?

Volume or volumes of information about the projects from bidding, contracting to technical specifications. No project is too small for a project manual.

What is MasterFormat?

Organizes specifications sections under division based on commonality. More complex and stringent the requirements, more lengthy the specifications.

What are Technical Specifications?

Used to be separated by trade (for example, carpentry, plumbing), but are now separated by construction technology ( for example, wood door).

Who has a contract with the Owner?

Only the General Contractor.

Are scopes of work established by the specifications?

No. Scopes of work are to be established by the General Contractor. Designers are not trained or licensed to make such distinctions. The General Conditions of the Contract state that the specifications do not establish trade or subcontract jurisdiction. General Contractor needs leeway to break down the work into subcontracts and trade arrangements, except in State Contracting for publicly funded projects sometimes require segregation of portions of the work (like HVAC from plumbing).

What are Sections?

Specify technical requirement for products and installation and to specify related administrative requirements such as submittals, quality controls and warranties.

How to address a large complex project through specifications?

Increase specificity through Levels. Narrowscope or Level one and two are good for small projects. Broadscape and level three and level four are good for larger projects, for example, to be able to specify architectural concrete versus structural concrete.

What is the goal of the specifier?

To break down the specifications into appropriately scaled units or Sections that are organized in accordance with C.S.I. MasterFormat Section numbers and titles.

Why would one break down the Project Manual into multiple volumes?

Large projects may have three hundred pages just for Division zero and Division 01. A fast-track or phased project may have different bidding phases. These can be brought together at the end. Also may want to address different delivery methods of a project such as Design-Building. One risk in separating the Project Manual is that essential information may be omitted or may contain extraneous information.

Are Appendices part of the Project Manual?

They can be, but are not a formal part of CSI MasterFormat. These can include documents that are information to bidders (such as geotechnical reports, hazardous materials reports, project schedule, existing conditions photographs. It is also used to include hybrid contract documents such as signage and graphics with written and graphic descriptions that do not conform to C.S.I. Appendices can also be used to include large or complex tables such as Door Schedules, Door Hardware Sets or Food Services/Medical Equipment Schedules.

What is the general process for grading operations?

1. Preparation of the site

2. Topsoil Stripping

3. Excavation and preparation of the subgrade

How should the initial site design and eventual grading plan be prepared?

Upon knowledge of the composition and other characteristics of the soil and or rock to be moved. This data can be obtained from the NRCS. More specific information can be collected through soil borings and test pits.

What happens when soil or rock is dug or blasted out of its original position?

It breaks into particles or chunks, which creates more spaces and adds to its bulk.

How can one determine if there will be an imbalance of cut and fill on a site?

Prepare a preliminary site plan and related grading plan with cut and fill calculations.

What earthwork estimating method is useful for the excavation of Building?

The Grid Method.

What earthwork estimating method is useful for linear elements such as roads and highways?

The average end-area method.

What earthwork estimating method is useful for accurate estimates to make final adjustments to the grading and preparing cost estimates for landscape architects?

Contour Method

When grading outdoor areas, is it best to grade for the minimum recommended grade or?

It is better to aim for the preferred rather than the minimum gradients.

What are the two major phases in roadway design?

1. Alignment of the road - giving it horizontal and vertical direction

2. Grading the adjacent landscape to the road edge

What is the shape of a swale?

Typically, swales are shallow, have a prabolic cross section, and are very side.

What is the shape of a ditch?

A ditch is deep and has a narrow geometric configuration.

How does one prefer grass swales from eroding?

If velocities do not exceed four feet per second, grass swales tend to not erode. If velocities exceed six feet per second, then some form of nonvegetative material should be used to construct the swale, such as gravel, crushed stone, or riprap.

What are site grading techniques to reduce volume and velocity of runoff?

By limiting the size, shape, length and gradient of slopes and channels, runoff can be minimized.

What do gravel, crushed stone, porous asphalt and other types of porous paving allow?

They allow flatter or steeper gradients than bare soil. However, they may not be radically different from grading and drainage standards normally used in a region.

What earth and rock-moving equipment pushes earth or rock and has limited capacity over large distances?

A bulldozer. It has a front-fitted rectangular blade that can be raised or lowered.

What earth moving equipment pushes earth aside to left or right rather than ahead.

An Angledozer. Like the bulldozer, it has a front-fitted rectangular blade that can be raised or lowered.

What earth moving equipment trims slopes to an even batter?

A sideboom dozer. It has a cantilevered blade on side of machine and is adjustable in verticle plane.

What earth moving equipment excavates shallow cuts. But cannot operate on verticle sites.

A grader. It has a curved section steel blad that rotates in horizontal or vertical positions.

What earth moving equipment breaks up or scarifies hard, compacted earth?

A ripper-scarifier. It has steel teeth, or tines, mounted on a frame.

What earth moving equipment excavates clay, chalk and loosened rock?

A face shovel. It operates at its own level. It has an open-type bucket or dipper and is filled by driving it into material being excavated.

What earth moving equipment does shallow digging?

A skimmer. Similar to face shovel, with more restricted movement and lower output. Will produce accurate finished level.

What earth moving equipment is ideal for use in confined spaces?

A backshovel or dragshovel. Working stroke is toward the machine. Excavates at a level below that of the machine's tracks.

What earth moving equipment is ideal for excavating narrow, vertical-sided trenches?

A trencher or digger. It is an alternative to the back shovel.

What earth moving equipment is ideal for excavating in soft materials and swampy sites?

A dragline. An excavating bucket filled by dragging it toward the machine. Excavates at a level below that of the machine's tracks.

How to grade around existing trees?

1. Avoid grading, cutting or filling above the root zone. For most species, this means staying outside the dripline.

2. If fill must occur, protect the tree with adequate air and water (like making a little ditch for it)

3. If creating a deck and incorporating the tree: footings should not disturb roots and opt for lightweight footings with crawl space versus a heavy foundation which would compact the subgrade. Grade beams and piles around trees are an example.

Should grading equipment be allowed within the root zone?

No. Grading equipment should not drive over the root zone, as it will tear root hairs, compact the soil and restrict vital matter and air from flowing to and being assimilated by the roots.

How to grade parking areas?

Maximum recommended cross-slope is 10 percent. Maximum ramp to parking areas is 15 percent. Changes in gradient can be taken up by planting median and ramp in between parking areas. Or segment parking to save trees combined with walls and ramps.

How to control runoff from parking areas?

Use overflow parking areas as detention basins. Use swales and gravel to create detention underground.

How to avoid soil slippage?

On hillsides, create a stepped sloped vs. a continuous slope for cut areas. For fill areas, create a stair-like shape in the existing topography and then fill in borrow on top for continuous slope.

How to control erosion via grading?

Reduce gradients by lengthening slope length. Use practices alone or in combination with one another, such as diversion swales, ditches and dikes to intercept and divert runoff from face of slope.

How does one design a culvert and headwall?

They are designed as fully integrated. Headwalls and wings serve as retaining wall to allow full exposure of the culvert pipe.

How are steep slopes used for berms graded?

1. Provide nonerosive drainage at tops and bottom of slope.

2. Grade the tops of banks to be smoothly convex and toes to be smoothly concave.

3. Grade slopes to blend within surrounding landscape.

What does the slope of a channel affect?

The slope of the channel determines the velocity of flow and consequently, the erosive potential. Since the side slopes of a swale do not affect this rate of flow, they may be much steeper and respond to other design criteria.

What are soil borings or test pits used for?

To determine effect on deisign and construction cost.

What is a rod sounding?

Done to determine the depth of bedrock. Borings can also be done by power augers for this purpose.

What is useful rock data when grading?

1. Amount of soil cover or depth of earth to rock.

2. How much top layer of rock is loose and can be moved easily.

3. How much will need to be blasted.

4. What is the basic rock type.

Note: cost of blasting rocks is typically seven to ten times higher than moving dry, deep, moderately cohesive soil.

What is swell?

When soil or rock is dug or blasted out. Breaks into particles or chunks and creates more volume and space. Bulk increases.

What is shrinkage?

When soil is placed in a new location with minimum compaction. The voids are filled and some shrinkage occurs. Rock swells, does not compact to its original volume.

What is included in the site analysis portion of a grading plan?

High points, low points, ridges, valleys. Natural drainage systems and directions of flow existing on the site.

What is included in the site use context of a drainage plan?

Determine how existing landforms would affect proposed uses. Specifically, buildings, roads, parking, walkways and plazas, for example.

What is a schematic grading plan?

Defines the general use areas by spot elevations and diagram drainage flow with arrows. Develops the general landform concept. Locates swales and surface flows. Locates drainage receptacles, calculates water runoff areas. Defines the areas to be altered.

What are ridges?

Borderline between two drainage basins. Characterized by shallow longitudinal slope that follows the decreasing topography and steeper slopes along the side of the ridge that drain water off the ridge. Steeper ridge, faster runoff. The steepness is determined by the closeness of the contours lines. Therefore, to decrease runoff, separate the contour lines further out from one another.

Topographical signature: contours point downhill with flow line in center showing direction of flow.

What are valleys?

Collection points for surface runoff that is flowing off of a ridge. Ridges have a longitudinal and side slope and so do valleys.

Topographical signature: contours point uphill, with flow line in center showing direction of flow.

What is a depression?

Topographically, a low point in the landscape, which is not water filled, does not have an inflow and outflow. Indicated by a circle-like shape with hatchure lines on inside and low point spot elevation.

What is a pond?

Topographically, has an inflow and an outflow, a low point and spot elevation in the middle.

How is steepness indicated on a topo plan?

Determined by how close the contours lines are to each other. To minimize or reduce runoff, separate the contour lines.

What do close contour lines that are close together or overlap indicate?

A cliff, shear vertical face.

What do two ridges meeting downhill from a peak indicate?

That there is a starting point and high spot elevation for a valley.

Where is the easiest place to locate buildings in the landscape?

On plane surfaces. Reduces the need for additional grading and earth moving. If a plane is located in a floodplain, an athletic field can be located there. If located on the top of a ridge line- a road can be located there.

What are the types of drainage systems?

Surface drainage system means runoff. Subsurface drainage system means percolation and underlying water table.

What are open drainage systems?

swales, ditches, dry stone beds. (Usually in rural areas with minimal infrastructure).

What is an open drainage system?

Piping and intermediary drain inlets and catch basins. Urban areas.

How are plane surfaces graded?

Appears flat but has a uniform slope in at least one direction. Most structures, constructed fields, plazas, sidewalks are plane surfaces. Slope is uniform and shallow. One to three percent slopes in one or two directions. Surface water either drains across a plane (called sheet drainage) or around a plane and diverted into a swale. Important that a buffer of five to ten feet be maintained around a plane surface to facilitate sheet drainage off of the surface of the plane before going into a swale.

What is a warped plane?

A plane that has more than two slopes, therefore more than one center line that acts as either a flow line or a ridge line. Parking lots and plazas are commonly warped planes, as well as baseball and football fields. Some fields use subsurface drainage systems combined with a warped plane.

What is a rim elevation?

The lowest point for a warped plane. a parking lot may be sloped towards the center and form a swale towards the drain.

In what direction do swales point?


What are the three points of a swale?

1. High Point.

2. Two slopes: longitudinal that drains the site and the cross slope, that drains the swale. The longitudinal slope does not need to be a uniform grade but ideally is between 2 and 4 percent.

What are tangent lines for horizontal curves?

They are directional lines in the horizontal plane. They go through the landscape.

What are tangent lines for vertical curves?

They are slope lines in the vertical plane. They go over the landscape.

What is P.V.I?

Point of vertical intersection.

What is B.V.C.?

Beginning of vertical curve.

How is the vertical curve determined?

The horizontal curve is first laid out, then the vertical profile is created based on the center line of the horizontal profile.

What are two issues to consider in vertical sight distance?

1. Safe stopping distance. The distance required to react, break and stop a vehicle at a given speed.

2. Safe passing sight distance.

Both are of concern on peak curves. A convex profile in the road shortens the sight distance.

What to consider in calculating safe stopping distance?

Eye height is 3.75 feet and object height is 0.50 feet. If the measured distance is less than the safe stopping distance, the vertical curve must be redesigned.

Where should the high point of a swale be located?

At the saddle point. Where descending topography of the site meets the ascending topography of the design on the other side.

How far away should the high point of a swale be located from a house, for example?

It should be located five to twenty feet away. For example, five feet away from a house at two percent, then five more feet to high point of swale.

How do you determine the shape of a swale?

Always start by determining the 'open side' of a swale. That is, establish slope intervals of the longitudinal slope and provide room for cross slope on the side closest to the proposed design. Then, once done, add finishing leg of the swale on the closed side, tying back the proposed contours into the existing topography.

How to measure the depth of a swale?

Determine where the swale falls along the existing contours and measure. For example, a six inch swale will fall midway between two contours, a twelve inch swale will fall at the next contour line. To determine the location of the new contour, measure the distance between two contours and divide by the depth of the swale to determine the location of the top of the new contour.

How to calculate soil cover over a pipe?

Use the invert elevation to determine the elevation of the bottom of the pipe entering or exiting a structure. Add the diameter of the pipe and deduct that elevation from the elevation or contour above the pipe.

How to determine the contours around a wingwall of a culvert?

Connect the contours at or through the pipe and wingwalls. The last contour will probably go 'over' the pipe. That is, it will cover it.

What is the topographical signature of a retention pond?

Closed set of contour lines nestled between two descending contour lines. Sometimes with arrows pointing inward. It is always on the lower end of a site, is positioned to facilitate attachment to any proposed swales. Can add depth based on maximum allowable slope and provide enough room for embankment. There are no swales around a pond, the goal is to get water into it. An embankment or dam is located six inches above the pond's highest elevation.

What are berms?

Earthen structure which forms a peak or ridge. May be uniformly sloped or sloped to mimic a natural peak. Has one or two high points, and is sloped per maximum allowable slope. Maybe swale drainage around it (like a saddle point behind it and another high point in between inlets, for example). Used for protecting viewsheds or hiding unwanted views. Sometimes slopes as road slopes adjacent to it.

What is a drain inlet?

Easiest connection to a closed drainage system that ends a swale into a drain inlet or into a catch basin.

How to set the rim elevation for a drain inlet?

Measure the distance between the last proposed contour line of the swale and closest ridge of the drain inlet. If a whole number spot elevation exists between the last proposed contour line of the swale and the rim elevation of the drain inlet, a closed contour line must be added around the inlet.

In the built world, what are roads, shoulders and sidewalks and curbs?

Roads are ridges. Built to prevent ponding and to ensure fast drainage.

Shoulders and sidewalks are plan surfaces

Curbs are mini-walls.

What varies between an urban and a rural road?

Rural roads have shoulders and swales.

Urban roads have gutters and connect to a closed drainage system. Although some have shoulders and curbs

Suburban systems are a combination of both.

What are the three parts of a road?

Longitudinal Slope

Center Line


What if a road does not have a crown?

Then the Center line is not a ridgeline, but a point in the middle of the road where it is sloped evenly on both sides. If it is pitched to one side, then the road is cross-sloped and treated as a uniformly-sloped plan surface.

Where do contour lines point in a ridge signature?

Contour lines always point downhill.

Where do contour lines point in a swale signature?

Contour lines always point uphill.

How are swale signatures drawn?

The contour lines always flare or veer away from the flowline. Contour lines maintain the same elevation while the flowline is descending.

What do a summit and a depression signature look like?

A summit signature (or berm) closed contours and the middle spot elevation is the highest.

A depression signature (or pond) has closed contours and the middle spot elevation is the lowest.

What does a plane surface with no cross slope look like?

The contour lines are ladder-like in appearance. Unless stated, cross-slopes should always be provided on walks and plane surfaces other than some game courts.

What does a concrete road signature look like?

It has chevron-shaped contour lines. Runoff flows off the road to the edges.

What does an asphalt road signature look like?

It has a curvilinear shape to its contours.

How to not invert a curb signature?

Break down each component into parts. For example, the crown of the road can be seen as a ridge, the gutter area as a swale, the curb as a wall and the sidewalk as a plane surface. Making sure to understand the direction of flow for each will help avoid inverting the signature.

What does the contour signature of a horseshoe swale look like around a level slab?

The contours work around the slab. Runoff is intercepted by the swale and taken around and away from the structure. Both the front and back of the area can be impacted by the grading. Contours should not be closer than 5' from the surface slab. Start with locating a 2 percent slope from the slab out five feet around the building, then five feet to the high point of the swale to keep the five to one ratio of slope from around the slab. Keep the five to one ratio (or other as listed in the problem) between all contours.

What is the contour signature for a horseshoe swale around a sloping plane surface?

In a sloping plane, the contours go 'through' the plane with swales on either side. To determine the angle of the contours through the plane, use the pythagorem theory formula with the existing slopes to determine the angle.

What to remember when calculating the cross slope for a bilaterally symmetrical site feature (such as a road)?

To divide the surface in half and treat as two planes.

What is the cross slope formula?

Deflection equals cross slope times width divided by longitudinal slope.

Finish Floor Elevation

Assume a level pad and all corners are the same.

What is daylighting with contours?

Refers to catching up to the existing contours lines, usually in the backslope area, but can also be front and side.

Why are flowline grades kept below roughly ten percent?

To avoid an erosive gradient. In a swale, runoff is concentrated in the flowline and thus, the combination of water quantity and velocity quickly becomes erosive at steeper gradients.

If presented with a tight area, where should the flowline be located?

In between the limit of construction and the surface to be protected. Solutions should always be as compact as possible to limit disturbance.

How to plot contour lines for the back-slope or the front-slope?

Space them at the closest permissible spacing. For example, if the maximum requirement is three to one, space the one-foot interval contours three feet apart. This will ensure that the revised contour lines are able to catch up to the natural contour lines (or daylight).

What is headloss in stormwater management?

The loss of velocity that results from turbulence within a drainage structure. Settling any negation is achieved by setting the invert elevation out of a structure some amount lower than the invert elevation in, which has the effect of re-accelerating the flow of water out of the structure, thereby canceling out for the potential head loss.

What is the lowest slope percentage that a drainline can be laid out with?

As little as one-half of one percent. Zero point zero zero five.

What is the wetted perimeter?

That portion of the inside circumference of the pipe that comes in contact with stormwater.

What is the depth of flow?

Depth of the water in the pipe; the depth vertically between the water surface and invert elevation of the pipe.

What is the hydraulic gradient?

Surface of the water under flow conditions where something has caused turbulence within the pipe or channel. The mean velocity of the stormwater is reduced, which in turn causes the water level to rise in the pipe.

What is velocity?

The mean velocity across the entire cross-section of a pipe. Expressed in cubic feet per second. Manning's formula is used to calculate an approximation of mean velocity. Also used in irrigation design to create the friction loss tables used for sizing irrigation pipes.

Velocity head?

The gravitational acceleration of stormwater in the pipe. Net difference between the hydraulic surface and the hydraulic gradient.

How far below the invert in should the invert tout be located?

If the pipes are both the same size, the pipe should be located one inch or point zero eight three feet below the pipe in.

What size should a pipe out be if there are two pipes coming into a drainage structure?

The pipe out should be larger than the largest pipe in. Use the difference between the two pipes coming in for the difference between the invert in and the invert out.

How deep should a pipe be set?

Go only as deep as necessary to solve the problem and secure the required cover over the drainline. In real world, deep invert elevations are undesirable because they require costly deep excavation and even shoring. Most often the cover is between one and two feet. Don't forget to add the pipe size when finding a spot elevation or determining whether cover is enough over a pipe.

What does the contour signature of a headwall resemble?

An abstract symmetrical spider.

How to space contours at a headwall?

Use the maximum allowable slope expressed such as three to one or five to one. Try to stay as close to ratio as possible.

What is the freeboard?

Defined as an allowance of the addtional wall or curb height above an adjacent finish grade elevation. Used to reduce the tendency for soil behind the wall to be washed over a wall or curb as the result of rainfall, irrigation, or wash-down.

What happens when the time of concentration matches the duration of a storm?

The entire watershed area is simultaneously contributing runoff to the point of discharge.

How to determine cut and fill?

If the revised contour moves into, or toward the high side of the existing contour, it is an area of cut.

If the revised contour moves away from, or toward the low side of the existing contour, it is an area of fill.

What does a road with evenly spaced contours imply?

That the road is rising or falling at a consistent longitudinal slope.

What does a road with contours that grow closer together or farther apart imply?

That two different longitudinal slopes are combining to create a vertical curve.

What does a road with the contours elongating on one side and contracting on another imply?

That we are seeing the effects of a horizontal curve.

What is the typical call out for the crown of a road?

Two percent.

one quarter inch per foot

or a contour every three feet

What happens when two sets of ridges meet?

They create either a low point or a high point in the road.

How to grade a road?

Always from the centerline outwards.

What is the cutoff slope on a path before requiring stairs and a ramp?

Five percent.

What two slopes are associated with paths?

One slope follows the ascending or descending topography of the path and the other is the cross-slope or pitch that enables sheet drainage of water off of its surface.

What type of slope do stairs have?

Longitudinal slope. Slope from the base of the riser to the edge of the step. Prevents tripping and ponding of water. The calculation is already included in the height of the riser.

How are landings graded?

For water the flow down the stairs or to a drain in the center of the landing (would therefore be a warped plane).

How do cheek walls interact with contours?

Contours go into the cheek wall. The cheek wall ties into the stair and generally extends above and below it.

When are handrails used?

For all sets of stair with more than three risers. The number of handrails varies with the width of the stair. One handrail is required for every two and a half feet of width of stair. Can be attached to stair or check wall and extends one foot at the top of the stair and one foot plus one tread at the bottom of the stair.

What is the height of handrails?

Between thirty-four and thirty-eight inches above risers.

What are the steps to design stairs?

1) Determine numbers of risers needed by dividing height by height of risers.

2) Multiply risers by riser height to determine total vertical change remaining to determine the slope for the landing.

3) Multiply tread length to determine length of stair.

4) Subtract total length of stairs from horizontal distance to determine landing length.

5) Calculate landing slope.

What is the minimum size of a ramp landing

Five by five feet.

What is the minimum allowable slope of a ramp?

Five percent to eight point three percent.

What is the maximum length of a ramp before needing a landing?

Thirty feet or two and a half feet of vertical rise.

How to determine the length of a ramp?

Determine change of elevation required. Maximum ramp length is determined by the minimum slope and minimum ramp length is determined by the maxiumum slope.

Where should the cross slope of a ramp flow?

The same direction as the surrounding topography.

What is required at the bottom of a ramp?

One foot of level landing which also allows space for handrails.

What is the signature of a retaining wall?

Same as curbs - very tall curbs. In plan view, contour lines travel along the face of the wall and re-emerge on the other side.

How is the back of a wall graded?

Usually flush for a couple inches lower than the top of the wall.

What are two parts of a retaining wall?

The arms and legs that bend to meet the landscape and the length of the wall that does the majority of soil retention. Arms/legs may be absent but when present, add stability. Length of the wall will depend on amount of soil that needs to be retained and maximum slope of the grading problem.

How to calculate finished floor elevation?

Assume that the finished floor elevation is one inch (point zero eight feet) higher than spot elevation at the door unless it is stated to be flush. Work from known spot elevations for example, a road to finished floor elevation then out again.

What is the slope of a pipe?

Generally shallower than the existing topography. Know what direction the water flows on land.

What is of concern when proving a slope for a landing?

If the longitudinal slope is two percent and the cross-slope os two percent, the actual slope will be two point eighty three percent which is too high. It is be best to have both slopes at one point four percent, which gives a maximum slope of one point ninety eight percent.

What is the maximum change of elevation at thresholds?

Half an inch.

What is the minimum for shedding water across paving materials?

One percent. Useful as a drainage pitch on tops of walls and step treads. Okay for cross slope. Also referred to as one-eighth of an inch per foot.

What is the maximum allowable cross slope under ADA?

Two percent. Also known as a quarter inch per foot.

What is the maximum gradient for a road intersection?

Three percent. Gradient at which it becomes noticeable to human eye. Trucks notice change.

What is the maximum accessible slope for a non-ADA path?

Ten percent.

What is the maximum gradient for cut or fill slopes?

Fifty percent. Flatter than the angle of repose for most soils.

What is discharge q?

The flow rate in a culvert, pipe or channel.

What is a diversion?

A channel, with or without a supporting ridge on the lower side, constructed across a slope to intercept surface runoff.

What is an embankment?

A bank of earth, rock, or other material constructed above the natural ground surface.

What is an emergency spillway?

A channel for safely conveying flood discharges exceeding the capacity of the principal spillway of a detention or retention pond.

What is a filter strip?

A vegetated buffer zone for removing sediments and pollutants before runoff reaches ponds, waterways, or other drainage facilities.

What is the fine grade?

Preparation of the subgrade preceding placement of surface materials.

What is free water?

Soil water that moves by gravity, in contrast to capillary and hydroscopic water.

What is a french drain?

A trench filled with coarse aggregate (with or without a pipe) for intercepting and conveying ground water.

What is the subgrade?

The grade established in preparation for top surfacing of roads, lawns, etc.

What is a grassed waterway?

A natural or constructed channel, usually broad and shallow and covered with erosion-resistant vegetation, used to conduct surface runoff.

What is a headwall?

A vertical wall at the end of a culvert to support the pipe and prevent earth from spilling into the channel.

What is the hydraulic radius?

The cross-sectional area flow of a pipe or channel divided by the wetted perimeter.

What is a hydrograph?

A graph showing, for a given point on a channel, the discharge, stage, velocity, or other property of water with respect to time.

What is the hydrologic soil group?

A soil classification system based on infiltration and potential runoff characteristics.

What is infiltration?

The downward entry of water into the surface of a soil or other material, as constrasted with percolation, which is movement of water through soil layers or material.

What is a low-flow channel?

A small ditch, constructed in flat bottoms of larger ditches or detention basins to facilitate their drainage during periods of low flow.

What is Manning's equation?

A formula for calculating the velocity of flow in a channel as a function of relative roughness, cross-sectional configuration, and gradient.

What is the moisture content?

The percentage, by weight, of water contained in soil or other material, usually based on dry weight.

What is the peak discharge?

The maximum instantaneous flow rate resulting from a given storm condition at a specific location.

What is the principal spillway?

A component of retention or detention ponds, generally constructed of permanent materials. It is designed to regulate the normal water level, provide flood protection, and/or reduce the frequency of operation of the emergency spillway.

What is the rainfall intensity or i.

the rate at which rain falls. In the USA, this is measured in inches per hour.

What is the Rational Method?

A formulate for calculating peak runoff rate from a drainage area based on land use, soils, land slope, rainfall intensity, and drainage area.

What is rough grade?

Stage of grading operations in which the desired landform is approximately attained.

What is the roughness coefficient or n.

a factor in the Manning formula representing the effect of channel or conduit roughness on energy losses in the flowing water.

What is a sediment basin?

A reservoir formed by the construction of a barrier or dam built at a suitable location to permit the settling out of sediments before releasing the water.

What is a subdrain?

A pervious backfilled trench containing a pipe with perforations or open joints for the purpose of intercepting groundwater or seepage.

What is travel time?

The time for runoff to flow from one point in a drainage area to another.

What is a trench drain?

A linear structure that collects runoff from a paved area.

What is a weephole?

A small hole, as in a retaining wall, to drain water to the outside.

What is a weir?

An opening in the crest of a dam or embankment to discharge excess water; also used for measuring the rate of discharge.

What is a basis of bearing?

A line between two points on the ground and indicated on a survey map, referenced to true North, which is the basis for property boundaries or other information on a survey showing horizontal relationships of objects to each other.

What is a concave slope?

A slope where the angle of the surface gets flatter as one gets closer to the bottom of the hill. People, vehicles, and runoff tend to decelerate on concave slopes, whether going up or down.

What is a convex slope?

A slope where the angle of the surface gets steeper as one gets closer to the bottom of the hill. People, vehicles, and runoff tend to accelerate on convex slopes, whether going up or down.

What is latitude?

Angular distance from any part of the earth measured North and South (horizontally) of the equator in degrees. Approximately 69 miles apart. 90 degrees max.

What is longitude?

Angular distance from any point on the earth measured east or west of the prime meridian. Converge at the poles. Prime Meridian is at Greenwich, England (0). At the equator, they are approximately 69 miles apart. They continue 180 degrees east and 180 west and meet at the international date line in the Pacific Ocean.

What are degrees of longitude and latitude?

Divided into minutes and seconds with 60 inches in each degree and 60 feet in each minute. One degree is approximately 69 miles.

What is the azimuth?

Clockwise angle from the north end of the reference meridian line to the line in question. An arc of the horizontal measurement between fixed points. In measuring angles by the azimuth method, all angles are between zero and three hundred and sixty.

What is magnetic declination?

It is the angle between magnetic north and true north.

What is a bearing?

A horizontal angle measured from North to East or North to West, South to East or South to West. Therefore, a bearing cannot be greater than 90 degrees.

What is northing/easting?

Geographic coordinate for a point. Easting is the eastward measured distance from the x coordinate. Northing is the northward measured distance from the y coordinate. Township descriptions are started from horizontal and vertical lines called Northings and Eastings.

What is plane surveying?

Where horizontal distances are measured on a horizontal plane. For example, distances recorded on deed restrictions and surveys are horizontal.

What is a traverse?

In surveying, it is a series of successive lines (often property lines) that are connected together. For example, a calculation which begins at a known plot corner and utilizes the lengths and bearings of the plot description and ends at the point of beginning is called a traverse.

What is the point of beginning?

Is a fixed, existing element in the landscape where surveying begins. Identifies the reference point to which all critical elements of the survey or project must relate and is identified on a drawing as US Coast and Geodetic Survey Marker, Survey Monument, Center of Roadway Intersections, property line corner, corner of a building, for example.

What is the size of a Township?

36 square miles

How many acres is a square mile?

640 acres

How many square feet is an acre?

43,560 square feet

Without the use of surveying equipment, right angles may be determined by using what?

Pythagorean Theorem. The proportions of 3,4,5. Or A2+B2-C2

What is a vertex?

The vertex of an angle is the point where two line segments meet or cross.

What is podsolization?

Soil developed in humid, cold to temperate regions where the vegetation produces acidic humus.

What are lateritic soils?

Soils associated with North
American tropical regions.

What is a metamorphic rock?

Any sedimentary or igneous rock created with increase in temperature and pressure - from deep in the earth's crust.

What is Igneous rock?

Rock formed directly from the cooling of magma - melted rock that has cooled and solidified, the majority of the earth's crust.

What is sedimentary rock?

Pieces of rock cemented together by chemicals or minerals.

What are Atterberg Limits?

Used to determine a soil's classification. Are a basic measure of the nature of a fine-grained soil. May appear in four states: solid, semi-solid, plastic and liquid. A test is used in the preliminary stages of building any structure to ensure that the soil has the correct amount of shear strength.

What is the Unified Soil Classification System?

USCS is used in engineering and geology to describe the texture and grain size of a soil. Gravel (g): greater than 50 percent of material retained on a #4 sieve.

Sand (s): soil particles between 0.05 and 2.0 millimeters. 2 is a very course sand.

Sil (M): soil particles between 0.002 and 0.05 millimeters

Clay (C): soil particles smaller than 0.002 millimeters (2microns)

Organic (O): highly organic - peat

What soil classification system is used for road construction?


What is a sieve analysis and particle analysis?

The grain size characteristics of soils that are predominantly coarse grained are evaluated by sieve analysis. The higher the sieve number, the smaller the grain size. The #4 sieve passes grains up to 4.75 millimeters. A #200 sieve passes grains up to 0.075 millimeters. The latter is used mainly on clayey or silty soil since they expand and shrink due to moisture content.

What is Soil pH?

A measure of the acidity or basicity of soil. Ranges from 0 to 14. 7 is considered neutral. Below 7 is acidic while 3.5 is ultra acid. Above 7 is basic while 9.0 is ultra alkaline.

What is the optimum pH for most plants?

Between 6 and 7.5 but many thrive outside this range. pH specifies plant nutrient availability.

What is a well-graded soil?

Contains particles of a wide range of sizes and a good representation of sizes. A well graded soil will compact better than a poorly graded soil.

What is a poorly graded soil?

Does not have a good representation of particle sizes. If they are uniformly graded most of its particles are of the same size (for example, sand). A poorly graded soil will have better drainage than a well-graded soil.

What is permeability?

The quality which permits movement of water and air through the most restrictive soil layer in the rooting zone.

What is slow permeability?

The most restrictive soil layer is 0.06 to 0.60 inches per hour, the most restrictive layer is commonly the lower subsoil.

What is moderate permeability?

Permeability in the most restrictive soil layer is 0.6 to 2.0 inches per hour, usually loamy subsoils with blocky, subangular blocky or prismatic soils.

What is rapid permeability?

Permeability in the most restrictive soil layer is more than 2.0 inches per hour, often loose sandy subsoils with little if any defined structure or restriction to movement of air and water.

What is the bearing capacity?

The capacity of the soil to support loads applied to the ground. The maximum load per unit area which the soil or rock can carry without yielding or displacement is termed as the bearing capacity of soils. All weight applied to a construction element is transferred to the soil.

How many pounds are in a ton?

2,000 pounds are in a ton

What is the safe bearing capacity?

The maximum intensity of loading that a soil will safely carry without risk of shear failure. The soil must have the capacity to support the weight of the material (dead load) plus the applied weight, either static or dynamic activity on the material (live load).

What does soil compaction do?

Increases the density of soil. Compaction increase load bearing capacity, prevents soil settlement and frost damage, reduces water seepage, swelling and contraction.

What is the Proctor Test?

Determines the maximum density of a soil. Compaction density depends on soil type. Some soils have little bearing capacity at 98 percent while others are rock hard.

What is differential settlement?

Structural failure due to unequal settlement. When part of a building is on compressible stratum and the rest of the building is on firm soil strata.

What is hardpan?

A dense layer of the soil usually found below the uppermost topsoil layer. Impedes drainage and restricts the growth of plants. Is an issue with foundations = often requires breaking through the hardpan layer as its bearing capacity may not be sufficient to support a foundation.

What is cohesion?

The ability of soils to stick to one another. Clay soils are cohesive. Sandy soil are not.

What are vertisols?

Clayey soils with high shrink/swell capacity. The shrink/well actions create serious engineering problems.

What are histosols?

Organic soils. Referred to as peats and mucks. Their physical properties restrict their use for engineering purposes.

What are mollisols?

Grassland soils with high base status. Some of the most productive soils in the world. Occur in mid-latitudes and prairie regions.

What is shear resistance?

The resistance of soil to movement when pressure or impact is applied. Occurs from the friction between the soil particles as they slide by one another. The higher the shear the resistance, the greater the compaction force required. Clay has high shear resistance. Sand has low shear resistance.

What is the angle of repose?

The steepest angle of descent of the slope relative to the horizontal plane when material on the slope face is on the verge of sliding. The angle varies as soil types vary.

What are ericaceous plants?

Plants that most often require acidic soils. They do not like lime! will not tolerate excessively wet soils because water displaces air.

What is a littoral drift?

Term used for the transport of non-cohesive sediments, mainly sand, along the shore face due to the action of breaking waves.

What is aquiclude?

The impermeable beds above and below the aquifer.

What is the soil horizon?

A layer to the soil surface whose physical characteristics differ from layers above and/or beneath. The term horizon describes each of the distinctive layers that occur in a soil.

What is the O horizon?

Organic matter - plant residue in relatively undecomposed form.

What is the A horizon?

Top layer of soil horizon or "topsoil" zone with the most biological activity. 2 inches

What is the B horizon?

Commonly referred to as "subsoil". Consists of mineral layers which may contain concentrations of clay or minerals. ten inches

What is the C horizon?

Little affected by soil-forming processes or weathering. Contains parent material and forms the framework of the A and B horizons. 30 inches

What is the R horizon or layers?

Hard bedrock. R layers are cemented and excavation is difficult.

What is the strength of concrete?

2,000 to 4,500 poured, higher for precast or extruded.

What are the limits of aluminum?

Light weight, brittle, limtied spans.

What is strong for posts or spans?


What is strong for compression or spans?


What is a typical span for a wood beam?

Shear, deflection limit to 8 feet to 10 feet wood.

What is the typical span for posts?

Slenderness ratio limits to 8 feet to 10 feet (wood).

What is the span of joists?

Shear, deflection limits span from 8 feet to 25 feet (laminated)

What is the span for decking?

Typically 10 inches to 24 inches maximum (wood or recycled).

What is the minimum depth for a foundation or footing?

Below frost depth by 1 foot.

What is the size of a concrete block?

8 inches by 8 inches by 16 inches.

What are precast pavers good for?

Best for geometric and rectilinear designs.

What are cast in place pavers good for?

Curvilinear or free form designs. Adding color, textures, surfaces.

What kind of lines are horizontal curves?

Directional lines in the horizontal plane? Through the landscape.

What kind of lines are vertical curves?

Are slope lines in the vertical plane. Over the landscape.

What are the two types of vertical curves?

Equal tangent curves and unequal tangent curves.

What is PVI?

Point of vertical intersection.

What is BVC?

Beginning of vertical curve.

What are equal tangent curves?

Where the horizontal distance from the beginning of curve to the point of vertical intersection equals the horizontal distance from the point of vertical intersection to the end of curve.

What are unequal tangent curves?

Where the horizontal distance from beginning of vertical curve to point of vertical intersection does not equal the horizontal distance from point of vertical intersection to end vertical curve.

What should be noted on construction drawings for vertical data?

Vertical curve data is presented on the profile of a road center line. Information includes vertical curve number, total length of curve, stationing at BVC, PVI, EVC, High point and low point and specified intervals. Curve elevation for all stations, tangent gradients.

What are concerns with regard to vertical sight distances?

Two types: safe stopping distance and safe passing sight distance. Both of concern on peak curves. Convex profile shortens the sight distance. Where measured distance is less than safe stopping distance, the vertical curve must be redesigned.

What are heights to consider when it comes to safe stopping distances?

eye height is 3.75 feet and object height is 0.50 feet.

What is a tangent?

Shortest distance between two points.

What is a curve?

Change of direction, add interest onto a boring road.

What is a simple curve?

A curve having a single radius. Especially found on low speed roads.

What is a compound curve?

Two or more radii in the same direction. For ease of handling, differ in length of the radii should not be more than fifty percent.

What is a reverse curve?

Two arcs in opposite directions. Usually, there is a tangent between two arcs; the length of which is determined by the speed of the road.

What is a broken-back curve?

Two curves in the same direction, connected by a tangent. If the tangent is short: difficult to maneuver and visually disjointed. Try to avoid.

What are spiral transitional curves?

Normal path through a curve at high speeds is not circular but through a series of curves with a constantly changing radius.

What is the point of intersection?

Point at which two tangent lines intersect.

What is an included angle?

Central angle of the curve equal to deflection angle between the tangents.

What is the tangent distance?

Distance between point of intersection to either point of curvature or point of tangency.

What is a chord?

Distance between point of curvature to point of tangency measured along a straight line.

What is full station?

one hundred feet equals one plus zero zero.

What is the horizontal sight distance?

The visual obstruction close to inside edge of road/ horizontal curve can obstruct drivers' view of road ahead. The forward sight distance should not be less than the safe stopping distance for the design speed of the curve.

What is superelevation?

When a vehicle travels around the curve, a centrifugal force acts upon it. To partially counter the force, road surfaces are banked/ tilted inward towards the center of the curve. This does not occur abruptly but is a gradual change. The length of superelevation referred to as runoff distance.

What is a bench?

A horizontal or sloping step in a slope.

What is blading?

Planing or smoothing the ground surface.

What is borrow?

Fill material imported to a site.

What is borrow area?

A source of earth fill materials used in the construction of embankments or other earth fill structures.

What is brushlayering?

Live branch cuttings laid in crisscross fashion on benches between successive lifts of soil.

What is a caisson?

Similar to pile; however, rather than driven, holes are drilled into the ground and filled with concrete.

What is a constructed wetland?

Artificially created wetland primarily to treat point and nonpoint sources of water pollution.

What is a continuity equation?

A formula expressing the principle of conservation of mass as applied to the flow of water (or other fluids of constant density). It states that the product of cross-section of flow and velocity at any point in a channel is constant.

What is a cordonata?

A grade change device that is a combination of stairs and a ramp, where treads are long, usually more than a single human stride, and sloping.

What is critical depth?

The depth of flow in an open channel at which critical flow occurs. For a given flow rate, depths greater than critical result in subcritical, or tranquil, flow. Those smaller than critical result in supercritical, or rapid, flow.

What is critical flow?

An unstable flow condition in an open channel that occurs at critical depth.

What is critical velocity?

The velocity at which unstable flow conditions begin to occur.

What is a diversion?

A channel, with or without a supporting ridge on the lower side, constructed across a slope to intercept surface runoff.

What is edaphology?

the study of the soil from the standpoint of higher plants and crop production.

What is an embankment?

A bank of earth, rock, or other material constructed above the natural ground surface.

What are fiber rolls?

Prefabricated tubes consisting of biodegradable materials such as coconut fiber or rice and wheat straw.

What is the hydraulic radius?

The cross-sectional area of flow of a pipe or channel divided by the wetted perimeter.

What is the hydrologic condition?

A term describing the vegetative cover, residue, and surface roughness of a soil as they may affect potential runoff.

What is the Hydrologic Soil Group (HSG)?

A soil classification system based on infiltration and potential runoff characteristics.

What is initial abstraction? Ia

Losses before runoff begins, including infiltration, evaporation, interception by vegetation, and water retained in surface depressions.

What is an intercepting ditch?

An open drain to prevent surface water from flowing down a slope by conducting it around the slope.

What is a lift?

Fill or base course material placed in successive layers. Each layer is properly compacted prior to the placement of the next layer.

What are live fascines?

Bound, elongated, sausage-like bundles of live cut branches that are placed in shallow trenches, partly covered with soil, and staked in place to arrest erosion and soil slippage.