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158 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back

Universal Slope Calculation

D = Difference in elevation

G = Slope % or Ratio

L = Length of slope measure horizontally

D = GxL

G = D/L

L = D/G


1. Existing - dashed

2. Proposed - solid

3. Contour number on high side

4. Darken every 5th contour

5. Values based on bench marks

6. Never cross

7. Always close on themselves

8. Tick mark where proposed contour meets existing

9. same number cont. can't be adj. without spot elevation between

Concave Landform

1. Bowl shape

2. contours spaced further away at bottom or toe of slope and closer together at top or crest

Convex Landform

1. Mound shape

2. contour lines are spaced closer together at bottom and further apart at top

Valley landform

Contours point up toward higher elevation contours

Ridge landform

Contours point down toward lower elevation contours

Also crowned roadway

Eye Height While Standing

Eye Height While Sitting



Circumference of Circle

pi(3.1416) x diameter

Area of a Circle

pi (3.1416) x radius sq.

1 board foot

144 cubic inches

Dead Load

weight of structure components measured in pounds per square foot (psf)

Ex) beam, decking, joist

Live Load

weight/force placed on a structure measure in pounds per square foot (psf)

Ex) person, table, chair

1 Acre

43,560 sf

Diameter of circle

2 x r

1 mile

5,280 feet

1 square mile

640 acres

Right Angle

use pythagorean theorem

a2 +b 2 = c2

Point of Beginning

-fixed existing element where survey begins

-all elements must relate

-identified on drawing

-ex) US Coast & Geodetic marker, property line corner, corner of building


- clockwise angle from north

- all angles between 0 deg and 360 deg

- N (0/360), E (90), S (180), W (270)

Magnetic Declination

- angle between magnetic north and true north

- east declination magnetic greater than true north


- angle measured N to E or N to W, S to E or S to W

- Can't be greater than 90 deg.

- Ex. N 20 deg 15' 30" E


-Coordinate of a point

-Northing - distance from x coordinate (horizontal axis)

-Easting - distance from y coordinate (vertical axis)


- survey of successive lines that are connected

- starts at POB and utilizes lengths and bearings and ends back at POB


-Lat - run horizontally, expressed N/S of equator

-Long - run vertically, expressed E/W of meridian

-Degree of Lat/Long measure in minutes (') (60) & seconds (") (60)

-Ex) 38 deg. 53' 23" N of the equator, 77 deg. 00' 27" W of the meridian

Bench Mark

-gives elevation above sea level and lat/long.

-brass USGS disk on monument


-36 sq. miles

-numbering starts at 1 in NE corner and goes right to left in top row, alternating subsequent rows so 36 is in SE corner

Section of Land

1 sq mile (640 acres)


vertical row of townships

Cadastral Survey

-ignores earths curvature

-use on small projects


-takes into account earths curvature

-large scale planning projects

Control Survey

-used for precise construction staking of horizontal and vertical points/boundaries

Boundary Survey

-locates true property corners and lines

-used to obtain building permits

Subdivision Plat

-subdivision of land into smaller parcels by conforming to local ord.

-show monumentation


Q = runoff quantity (cubic feet per second)

C = runoff coefficient

I = rainfall intensity (inches per hour)

A = acres

C Values

- impervious higher values:

--concrete .7 to .95

--roof .75 to .95

--asphalt .7 to .95

- pervious lower values:

--lawns .05 to .35

--parks .1 to .25

--forests .05 to.25

C Value Weighted average

- where different land areas within drainage watershed have different runoff rates

- Ex)

--300 acres; 100 ac. with C = 44 & 200 ac. with C = 68

-- weighted avg. = (.33 * 44) + (.67 * 68) = 60

Sediment Control Devices

*used to prevent sediment from leaving site

-silt fence

-silt sacks

-hay bales

-filter strips

-ditch checks (bale, silt, rock)/dikes

-sediment basin

-slope barriers (bale or silt)

-inlet protection drops (bale, silt, rock)

Types of backflow prevention device

- atmospheric vacuum breaker

- double check valve

- dual check valve

- pressure vaccuum breaker

- reduced pressure backflow prevention assembly - **for highly hazardous substacnes

Backflow Prevention Device

Prevents water from being drained/sucked back into water supply lines from an irrigation line

Standard Measure of Flow in drip irrigation

Gallons per hour (gph)

Standard Measure of Flow in irrigation design

Gallons per minute (GPM)

Erosion Control Devices

*purpose is to control runoff and erosion

- check dam

- seeding and mulching exposed soils

- runoff diversion ditch

- erosion control blanket

- tacking equip. on slope (dozer perp. to slope; sheepsfoot roller, rubber tire tracks perp. to slope)

Wheelchair clear space

27" high, 30" wide, 19" deep

top surface of table 28-34" high

Min. buffer/fall zone around playground equip. free of obstacles


Min. distance between separate pieces of playground equipment

12' with no overlapping fall zones

Unit of measure for water pressure in fountain

-Pounds per square inch (psi) or feet of water column...head

-Head/ Pressure Head/ Static head

-1 psi = 2.31 feet of head


-required at slab joints in pools for waterproofing

-also used at construction joints in conc. slabs

-don't use epoxy

Attaching guardrail to deck

- do not attach to decking surface, not enough support

pipe nomograph

- used for pipe sizing of stormsewer

mannings equations

- used to assign coefficient of friction in open channel flow

max. cantilever of posts and beams


Characteristics of soils with high plastcity index

-low moisture availability due to high capilarity

-high shrink/swell ratio

-poor drainage

Pipe Size at manholes

-exiting pipe has larger diameter and lower invert elevation than entering pipe

Waterfeature pool depth

- 18" max. pool depth to avoid being classified swimming pool

-12" min. depth to provide satisfactory return, lights, jets


-natural sunlight to light fountains, rock, etc.

-southerly exposure ideal northern clim.


-as effective as daylighting

-must be careful as visual distraction of seeing lighting

submersible lighting

-expensive (3-5 times as much as floodlights)

Landings in staircases with big elevation change

Provide every 9-11 risers

Control/Contraction Joint

-used to provide weakened place for cracking to occur

-place at regular intervals in flat and vertical

-hand tooled when plastic

-sawcut after hardened

-extend 1/4 of depth of pour

-12 to 15' max.

Construction Joint

-used between pours (30 minutes or more)

-use smooth dowel or keyed joint to tie together and prevent differential settlement

-depth of joint is full depth of pour

Expansion/Isolation Joint

-allow differential movement between adjacent structural elements (buildings, walls,foundations)

-extend full depth of slab

-filled with premolded fiber strips

-joint sealants may be used to prevent water (siliconized rubber and polyeurethane)

Concrete Pressure Test

-measure air content at time of use

-air content protects from frost and deicer damage

-too much air creates lower strength

-too little air susceptible to freeze/thaw or deicer damage

Slump Test

-measure consistency/workability of concrete between batches

-expressed in inches (1-3" most common)

-changes in slump indicate change in amount of water in mix

Kelly Ball Test

-alternate measure for concrete consistency

Schmidt Hammer Test

-gives estimate of concrete compressive strength

Cylinder Test

-measures compressive strength of cured concrete

-done off-site in testing machine

Retardant Admixture

-slows down hardening/setting of concrete

-during hot weather


Accelerator Admixture

-used to speed up hardening of concrete

-used in cold weather

Air entraining agents Admixture

-disperses air bubbles in mix

-makes surface more resistant to freeze/thaw

-makes surface more resistant to damage by deicing

-improves workability

Plasticizer Admixture

-improves workability


Pozzolans Admixture

-improves workability

-strength enhanced at later stages

Water:Cement Ratio

-less water/lower ration = stronger mix

-more water/higher ratio = better workability of mix

Concrete Strength

-high in compressive strength

-low in tensile strength

--compressive strength measured in Pounds per Sq. Inch (PSI)

-28 days to fully cured concrete

--full cure = ideal compressive strength, resistance to freeze/thaw and abrasion

-min. 3 days curing

-3,000 psi sidewalks

-4,000 to 6,000 psi highways


combination of aggregates, water and portland cement

Portland Cement

-ASTM C150

-Type 1 = general purpose

-Type III = High Early Strength (allows driving sooner, really high early psi that tapers off as cures)

Adding Water to concrete

-increases workability

-lowers compressive strength

Adding Water to mortar

-increases tensile strength

-lowers compressive strength

-lowers durability


-used to add tensile strength to concrete

-deformed to add grip with concrete

-size = 1/8" diam.

ex. #6 rebar = 3/4" diameter

-locate in tension zone of concrete

-2" min. cover

-sidewalks optional, need in heavy traffic areas

-grade = psi

ex. grade 40 (most common) = 40,000 psi

Welded Wire Fabric/Mesh (WWF or WWM)

-3 numbers

ex. 6x6#10 = 6" sq. grid of #10 wire gauge

-higher gauge = thinner wire

Forms & Ties

-wet subgrade and forms prior to placement to prevent water in concrete from being drawn out

-use release agent on forms

-deadform = forms left in place

-contractor typ. responsible for strength and design of forms

-may be used once and discarded or reused multiple times or left in place

-space ties evenly for pattern

Hydration of concrete

-curing - favorable moisture levels and temperatures

- must maintain temperature and moisture levels...wet for 5-7 days after pouring

Concrete Finish interior only

trowled - too slippery

Porous concrete

-uniform aggregates

-difficult to work, low slump and water content

-no sand used

Ready Mixed Concrete

-mixed at plants and hauled to jobsite on mixers ready to be placed

-place within 90 minutes

-allowed to add water 1 time

Soil Cement

-mixture of water, cement and soil - slope protection


-mixture of portland cement and sand

Use of concrete tools

1. straight edge

2. float - to get smooth

3. troweling - to make dense

4. jointers/groovers and edgers - to round corners and make joints

When to stake trees

-bare root condition

-windy/exposed condition

-wet or loose soil

Asphalt Binder Course

-asphalt pavement course between base course and surface course

Asphalt Base Course

-layer(s) immediately beneath surface (stone, sand, soil)

-purpose is supporting pavement loads, providing drainage and minimizing frost action

Cross Slope Formula for distance deflection

(cross slope %) * (distance of cross slope) divided by the (longitudinal slope %)

Asphalt Surface Course

-wearing course

-top course of asphalt pavement

Cutback Asphalt

-liquified asphalt cement by blending with petroleum solvents that eventually evaporate and leave cementing/waterproofing


Emulsified Asphalt

-asphalt cement and water

-water evaporates and leaves asphalt cement (paving)

Asphalt Prime Coat

-application of cutback asphalt to absorbent surface of gravel

-used to prepare base course of asphalt pavement by filling voids and binding with aggregates

Asphalt Tack Coat

-application of emulsified asphalt to ensure bond between two asphalt pavement courses

Road Mix Asphalt

-pavement mixture done at site

Hot Mix Asphalt (HMA)

-pavement mixture produced at mixing facility

-spread and compacted at elevated temps

-both aggregates and asphalt heated prior to mixing

-made of: liquid binder, aggregates and air voids

-4-6" lift


-material specs and lab. mix design based on performance criteria developed - SHRP

Ex) 9.5 mm superpave - used for most applications, 12.5 mm superpave heavy traffic

Perpetual pavement

-3-layer flexible pavement design

-deep strength, long lasting, just need to replace surface

Rigid Pavement


Flexible Pavement


Asphalt Paving Advantages

-inexpensive for large areas

-resistant to acids, salts

-dark color reduces glare

-can be recycled

-can be constructed rapidly/used wihin hours of placement

-long lasting and min. maintenance


Asphalt Paving Disadvantages

-heat island warming

-moves under traffic loads...edge rest.

-softens under high temps.

-susceptible to surface damage sharp

Asphalt Depth

-anticipate traffic loads

-strength and bearing capacity of subsoil

-frost depth

-strenght of aggregates

Asphalt Pavement Drainage

-water is principal cause of pavement distress

-use underdrain where high water table

-min. slope on surface 1.5%

-wet soils/aggregates not as strong as dry

Asphalt Painting

-need to cure 14 days min.

-acrylic latex paint, acrylic binders, colored aggregates or coal tar sealants

Epoxy use

-use to fill concrete cracks due to strenght and strong bond to concrete

-water repelance and long wearing abrasion resistant finish

Mastic use

-high grade construction adhesive

-used to bond tile, plywood, concrete, steel, aluminum and some plastics

-waterproof putty like paste used as joint sealant or filler

-reisistant to water and heat

Sheepsfoot Roller

-best used on clay soil (colloidal)

-best for cohesive soils for deep compaction of materials

Plate Compactors

-best use on granular soils

-can be used on asphalt (use water)

-heavier plate = more compaction


-jumping jack

-cohesive and semi-cohesive soils


-smooth drum - ideal for asphalt or soil, vibration by drum

-Rubber Tire

-Padded Roller (Trench roller)

-Double drum vibrating roller - asphalt

Tractor/Loader/Backhoe vs. Bobcat

-Tractor/backhoe can only do 1 task at a time load or excavate

-while bobcat can perform simultaneous tasks


-used for clearing and grading land

-limited by push

Box Scraper

-attachment to remove materials, store them and transport to another location for later use

Mini Excavator vs. backhoe

360 degree reach in mini excavator

180 degree reach in backhoe

Construction Sequence

1. Layout & Staking

2. Site Clearing

3. Topsoil Stripping & Stockpiling

4. Earthwork

5. Drainage & Utilities

6. Grading

7. Paving & Surfacing

8. Site Furnishings

9. Planting & Seeding

Critical Path Method (CPM)

-linear or simultaneous tasks

Program Evaluation Review Technique (PERT)

-accounts for adjustments to keep completion date on track with shaded critical path items and milestone dates that must be met to hit completion date

Climate change - increased precepitation and storm events

-more runoff, less infiltration = less recharge/water supply and lower water levels in lakes

Wetland restoration

-more successful than constructing new

-hydric soils typ. still exist under filled wetlands

Best method of waste water disposal

-through soil

-need adequate space, 2-4' depth to water table but can use mound if high, and moderate permeability

-efficient, sustainable and minimal maintenance/costs

Bolts and materials

**bolts used over nails/screws for heavier, structural members (posts and beams, footing)

-Lag - use in wood, use with lead or expansion anchor to attach wood to concrete or masonry

-Through - walls

-jbolt, l-bolt, threaded rod, - lights, signs, bollards

-bolt anchor used in larger bolts wood construciton

carriage bolt

-nut and washer on threaded shank

-tamper reistant

-round head for safety

Lag bolt

-penetrate 1/2 to 2/3 of receiving member width

-don't countersink


Machine bolt

-squre or hex head

-need access to both ends

lead anchor or expansion shield

-used to anchor screws or lag bolts into masonry or concrete

-expands into material as screw tightens

Expansion bolt

-mounting into existing concrete surface

Machine screws

-used to attache two pieces of metal


-nail over 6" length, rectangular cross section

Line of maximum shear

2/3 of way compression downward force

avoid bolts along line as will weaken the beam



Drive Anchor

-used in concrete masonry, installed prior to screw

-light to med. duty concrete

-expands upon impact at insertion


Prescription Spec

-closed, most restrictive type

-identifies brands - proprietary

-limits product choice which can increase price

Specs general

-prevail over drawings

-don't dictate how to install

-materials and mehtods of const.

Performance Spec

-open, flexibility and choice on contractor

-describes end results

Descriptive Spec

-describes requirements of products and materials but not product

-reduces liability

-meet industry standards

Pure peformance Spec

-not often used/difficult

Paving Brick

-Grade Nx - interior only

-Grade Sx - severe weather rated

-Type 1 - non vehicular

-Type II - moderate vehicular

Ceramic Tile Paving

-requires rigid base, setting bed and joints

Mortar Type for pavements

Type M

Mortar Type for walls

Type N (general purpose)

Paver Section

1. Base Course

2. Setting Bed

3. Joints

Rigid - concrete or mortar

Semiflexible - asphalt

Flexible - aggregates, sand


Mix of cement, water & sand


Mix of cement, water, sand & lime

Non-shrink Grout

-non pourable

-used for joints of ceramic tile or thin set stone walls

Grout Use

-soupy liquid

-used to fill cores in masonry walls

-low compressive strength, high tensile strength

Tooled Mortar Joints

-Best for exterior applications

-Vee, Concave

Trowleded Mortar Joints

-Weathered (acceptable outdoor)




Purpose of Geosynthetics







-used in landfills, pond liner, vapour


-drainage applications




-combine drainage and reinforcement properties

Color Rendering Index (CRI)

-degree to true color by lighting

-0 (worst) to 100 (best)

- high/low Pressure Sodium worse CRI

-Tungsten Halogen, incandescent, metal halide better CRI

HID lighting

-mercury vapor

-metal halide

-high pressure sodium

-low pressure sodium

Head to head spacing Irrigation

-100% coverage