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76 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back

Three components of a typical parking study

Supply/Demand Analysis

Site Alternatives Analysis

Financial Analysis

Techniques for estimating parking demand

1. Recommended parking ratios (per code, industry standards etc.)

2. Estimated per-person trips at peak hours - critical differences between using the design day and median days...recommendations look to the 85th percentile of peak-hour parking

3. Effective Supply - Downward adjustment 10-15%. 85th-95th percentile full. Goal is to provide enough spaces so that the perception is that there is still available parking

Ways to fund shared parking

1. Fees in Lieu

2. Special Tax districts

3. Land Banking

4. Administratively Approved Deviations









American Association of State Highway Transportation Officials

American National Standards Institute

Americans with Disabilities Act (titles I, II, III)

International Building Code

Architectural and Transportation Barriers Compliance Board

Uniform Federal Accessibility Standards

Proposed Guidelines for pedestrian facilities in the Public Right-of-Way

Landforms at the regional scale

Landforms at the site scale

Landforms at the smallest scale

"Macrolandforms" - Mountains, valleys, hills

"Microlandforms" - berms, mounds, grade/level

"Minilandforms" - undulations, ripples, texture

Southeastern US - Topographic Regions

Piedmont, Plain, Mountains

Landscape location & topography influence

Italian - Villas in steep hillsides, water features

French - Ornate patterns on flat landscapes

English - Rolling hills, curves, streams/lakes

Max Slope for shrubs only

Max slope to maintain turf



Min slope for positive drainage

1% - paved areas

2% - landscaped areas

5% - typical away from buildings

Seasons & Wind Exposure




NW Slopes = Cold winds

SE Slopes = protected

SUMMER: SW slopes = cooling effect breeze

Most desirable slope aspect for development


- Protection from winter wind

- Indirect heat from afternoon sun

- Exposure to summer breeze winds

- Exposure to winter sun

Three goals for grading

1. Establish proper drainage

2. Modify site to accommodate program needs

3. Create aesthetically pleasing ground plane

Convex slope & landform

 High point,  mound

High point, mound

Concave slope & landform

Low point, depression

Low point, depression


Proportional relationship of spot elevation between two contour lines. horizontal and vertical are the same proportion

(ie. if horiz distance for spot elevation is one-fifth of the total dist apart, it is also one-fifth of the vertical distance between contours)

Ratio Slope Guidelines

2:1 (50%) Absolute max slope to avoid erosion - must be planted

3:1 (33%) Absolute max slope for planting areas

4:1 (25%) Absolute max maintainable by mower

Sustainability Practices

Practice a heirarchy pricinciples: Preservation, Conservation, Regeneration

Sustainability Practices

Design in response to economic, environmental, and cultural conditions (local, regional, global)

Sustainability Practices

Foster collaborative, ethical design approach among stakeholders, clients, manufacturers..think long-term about environmental justice

5 areas of LEED concrern

1. Site planning and design

2. Energy usage

3. Water management

4. Materials resources and waste

5. Indoor environmental quality

LEED Design Considerations - BUILDINGS

- Building position for solar access

- Materials Selection & their life cycle

- Design for energy efficiency/performance

- Materials & equipment for indoor air quality

- Minimize construction & operations waste

- Weigh capital cost against operations $ savings

- Use of published LEED strategies

LEED Sustainable Sites Considerations - SITE

- Landscape for energy efficiency

- Rethink grounds, maintenance, toxins

- Reduce water consumption

- Site specific issues awareness (i.e. soils)

- Accommodating access, public transportation

- Using site features for building performance

- Building site for solar/seasonal influence

- Maximizing local energy alts.

BEES life cycle assessment model 10 impacts of building materials

(Building for Environmental and Economic Sustainability)

1. Global warming potential

2. Acidification potential

3. Eutrophication potential

4. Natural resource depletion

5. Indoor Air quality impacts

6. Solid Waste impacts

7. Smog

8. Ecological toxicity

9, Human toxicity

10. Ozone depletion

Critical elements of Site Analysis / Assessment



USDA Plant Hardiness Zones


Aerial Photogrammetry

Historical aerial photography

USDA Soil survey

Zoning regs

Utility mapping

Historical / cultural data

Hazardous Soil conditions: cracking of walks, foundation & retaining wall failures

Expansive Soils

- Dry characteristics: hard, cut leaves shiny surface, irregular crack patterns

- Wet characteristics: sticky, shiny when cut, develops thick coating on machinery/shoes

Liquefaction - condition and type of soils

Condition where solid soil can turn mushy when vibrated (earthquakes). Associated with fine to medium grained sands/silts.

Liquefaction - Risk

- Soils with higher density = lower risk

- Clay content of 15% or more = adequate protection

Ecological Services Analysis of site

- ID vegetative communities

- Habitat (seasonal & year-round)

-Presence of colonial birds

- Hydrology

- Soils

- Local Climate

Environmental Site Assessment (ESA)

Assesses environmental risk for planning and development. Often required by lenders

10 Characteristics of a quality community

(Hylton 1995)

1. A Sense of Place

2. Human Scale

3. Self-contained neighborhoods

4. Diversity

5. Transit-friendly design

6. Trees

7. Alleys and parking lots to rear

8. Humane architecture

9. Outdoor rooms

10. Maintenance and safety

Lot layout alternatives

- Grid Layout

- Deep narrow lots

- Wide shallow

- Alley Houses

- Z-Lots (Zero Lot Line)

Cluster Design

Development pattern to cluster units on a tract. Density bonuses are often incentives to developers to preserve open space

Design Guidelines for safety and security

Crime Prevention through environmental design (CPTED)

- Key to involve community in design process

CPTED strategies

- Lighting

- Lines of sight along streets/bldgs

- plant material consciousness

- traffic calming

- Look for escape routes

- Vandal-proof materials

- Evidence of formal and informal surveillance

- Restrict vehicle movement

LIGHTING - Florescent

70 lumens

6000 life hours

good color purity, white

Affected by cold weather

LIGHTING - High pressure sodium

130 lumens

16,000 life hours

Poor color purity, yellow/orange

Washes out colors in landscape

LIGHTING - Low pressure sodium

190 lumens

11,000 life hours

Poor color purity, pink/orange

Washes our colors in landscape (gray)

LIGHTING - Metal Halide

90 lumens

14,000 life hours

cool white, good color purity

LIGHTING - Mercury Vapor

55 lumens

24,000 life hours

cool white

Strong in blue-green spectrum

LIGHTING - Tungsten-iodine

18-20 lumens

2000 life hours

Good color purity (deluxe white)

Human Dimensions - standing

Human Dimensions - Sitting

Human Dimensions - Wheelchair

Accessibility - Path dimensions

Accessibility -Wheelchair turnaround (42" wide path)

Accessibility - Wheelchair turnaround (36" path)

Equation to determine ideal sidewalk width

W = V(M)/S

W = width of path

V = Volume in person/minute

M = Sf allowed per person

S = Walking speed in ft. / min (avg. 4 ft per sec)

Sidewalk Grades

Min. 1% cross slope (drainage), not to exceed 3%

Longitudinal slope of 3% or less is best

Avoid slopes more than 5% in icy conditions

Level of service - Sidewalks

Walks exceeding 5%

Max dist. at 8.33% on a ramp before a landing

Considered a Ramp

Every 30'


2R+T = 26-27"

2(Riser ht.) + Tread height

- Min. height 4.5 in.

- Max. 7 in.

- Min. 2% pitch for drainage

- Min. 3 steps preferred

- Provide 5' or less grade change b/t landings

- Visual signals for tread edges on nosing (i.e. relief, chamfer)


- Slopes 1:12 (8.33%) and 1:16 (6.2%)

- Not to exceed 30" height, 30' run

- Cross slope not to exceed 1:50 (2%)

Ramp handrail extension - 12" at landings

Ramp Corner Dimensions

Typical Ramp Dimensions

Min vertical clearance protection overhead protection (i.e. Under stairs)

Playground Design Dimensions

- Locate several hundred feet from the street

- Sized 70sf/child or 21sf per family

- 2000sf playground serves approx. 100 families

- 50-60% of the area should be turf

- 12ft between pieces of equipment

- Avoid overlapping fall zones

- Shock absorbing materials

- Include areas for observation/benches/strollers

"Critical Height" in playgrounds

Maximum height of a fall from which a life-threatening head injury would not be expected.


Swings - ht from 90degrees at rest position

Slides - ht from top of platform guard rail

Two types of safe playground surfaces

1. Unitary materials (i.e. foam-like mats or pour)

2. Loose fill materials (rubber or wood mulch)


Slide Fall Zone


Swing Fall zone - 360 deg. movement


Swing fall zone - typical 180 deg. movement

Three types of bicycle trips

1. Commuter

2. Recreational

3. Neighborhood

Bicycle design grades

- 3% ideal, limit 4-5% max

- Grades over 5%, generally require standing

- Grades of 8% or more, cyclists often dismount

- Wider surfaces on steeper sections for passing

Seating - Bench Dimensions

Seating - Table dimensions

Complete Streets Dims - Design table for local, collector, and minor arterial streets

Suitable Slopes




Steep (greater than 15%) - Preclude cost-effective construction

Moderate (5%-15%) - Suitable for some structures, split level or terraced

Gradual (less than 5%) - Ideal for most land uses: parking, recreation fields, roads. Minimize construction cost and impacts to land

Good rules of thumb for siting road access point

Sight distance triangle: 50'

Distance to next intersection: 100'

Intersection grade: 3% or less

Parking Spaces Required for uses (examples)


Shopping center: 5 per 1,000 SF

Theater: 1 per 4 seats

Bowling Alley: 4 per Lane

Hotel: 1 per unit

Parking dimensions for Accessible spaces (Car and Van)

Walk grades and distance required for ramps

0-5% - any distance without landing

5%-8.33% - Landing 200'

8.33% - 10.1% - Landing 30'

10.1% - 12% - Landing 10'

Cone of vision: Vertical and Horizontal ranges

Roadway Driver's height for Sight Distance Calculations

3.5' above road surface

Stopping sight distance calculation height of object to be avoided

2' object height

Four types of Roadway alignment curves

Simple: Tangent - Curve - Tangent

Compound: Tangent - Curve - curve - Tangent

Reverse: Tangent - curve (1 way) - tangent - curve (2 way)

Broken-Back: Tangent - cuve (1 way) - tangent - curve (1 way) - tangent