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320 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
plants point out or acknowledge importance of a space or object
5 functional elements in design
EDGES (shorelines, roads, hedgerows), PATHS (streets, walkways), DISTRICTS (neighborhoods), NODES (entrances, plazas), LANDMARKS (unique features, buildings)
underground layers of water bearing rocks in which groundwater is taken from by way of wells; in danger of contamination by contaminents in rivers and streams, surface drainage that can pick up contaminents like oil and gas and allow them to infiltrate soil thru leaching of septic fields
acrylic polymers
added and mixed with soils to create a film that allows air and water to penetrate but still binds soil particles together
Americans with Disabilities Act; have info on requirements for handicap parking, accessibility, grades of walkways; plans must accommodate the entire population to a resonable extent; can offer "stages of accessibility" and leave up to users to decide their own limits; use texture and color changes for grade changes
aerial photogrammetry
uses low level aerial photograhy to produce maps of topo and physiological features
aerial photographs
help determine topography, soil type, vegetative cover; used for land inventory, community planning, monitoring veg growth, but NOT used for creating topo maps
an object's ability to reflect sun's rays
aliquot part
a quarter or half division of a section of land
angle of incidence
angle that sun's rays strike the earth
angle of repose
maximum angle at which slope of soil remains stable
plants that complete their entire life cycle in a year or less
architectural uses of plant material
plant material used to create space (open space, semiopen space, canopied space, enclosed canpied space, and vertical space) via closure or linkage; plant material used for screening, for privacy control
area plan
shows how specific areas should be developed in town
cooler in morning, hotter in evening
average household
makes 13 trips a day by car!
azimuth of the sun
angle of the sun north or south of an east-west line
base lines
set of lines that run east to west; serve as basis for US Survey System; follow latitudes
base plan
first plan needed; includes topography, property lines, building locations
bearing of line
horizontal angle between direction of line and line pointing true north; meaured from north or south only, angle never over 90 degrees
bench mark
reference point with a known elevation
plants that take 2 years to grow, flower, and shed their seeds before they die
biology of a site
natural corridors, animals and plants on site
using mico flora and fauna to decompose or stabilize contaminents
bioretention pond
designed to filter pollutants on site using plant materials; only allow overflow water to drain into pipes with rest infiltrating soil; can contaminate groundwater if not used correctly/appropriately; infiltration bed, recharge trench, and infiltration well also allow water to infiltrate soil but do not rely on plants to filter out pollutants
wetland fed by groundwater, dominated by peat moss, rich in mineral salts, and acidic
abandoned or underutilized properties that are environmentally contaminated or are percieved as being contaiminated from past industrial or commercial activities; Superfund aka CERCLA
building clusters
buildings best relate at 90 degrees to e/o, and thru extended imaginary lines; overlap modules, not corner to corner
building design
it's essential that interior use matches exterior use in all areas of building-- ie, outdoor living sapce off living room, outdoor dining space off kitchen; strongest connection to outdoors happens when interior and exterior elevation are the same
building siting
treat building as positive sculptural element set off from its surroundings OR treat building as element to be blended into environs; to adapt to gentle slope, either create terrace by cut and fill OR create terrace by using retaining walls OR use split level house to accomodate grade change OR adapt building to site with additional story or pole construction; best siting is near top of slope to maximine breezes and on east side, to minimize solar heat gain; think about SE slopes, breeze utilization in warm periods, windbreaks aagainst NW winter winds
bulk density
weight per volume of any unit of soil
calming traffic
speed bumps, chicanes, narrowing of the road, small corner radii, related street elements like lighting and traffic circles; helps make more pedestrian friendly
central open space
self-centered and inward-oriented; enclosure occurs at corners; identoty is strongest when hollowness is reinforced
change of use
significant factors include unit development plan, zoning ordinance by-laws, and variances, but NOT building code
channeled linear space
long and narrow space; attention directed toward ends of space
include circulation, including vehicular patterns, desire lines of pedestrians, etc when taking inventory
smallest mineral particle in soil separates; characterized by slow drainage and poor aeration, but has best nutrient holding capacity of all soil separates
statistics including temp, humidity, wind, rainfall, snowfall, solar raditation, potential natural hazards-- their quantities, not their actions
closed traverse
connection of lines that enclose an area and whose coordinates are predetermined, ie a property's boundaries
cluster development
benefits include lower cost of utility installation, preservation of natural drainage and vegetation; same number of units on tract of land, but clustered together to preserve open space
measure of how soil particles stick together; associated with clays
color infrared photography
type of aerial photography used for large-scale site analysis to detect vegetation under stress due to disease; use to monitor growth and vigor of vegetation
colored concrete
dark color absorbs heat; light color stays cooler
columnar form
upright form but with rounded top; example: Sentry maple, Hicks yew
comfort level
affected by air temp, humidity, wind, solar radiation, air pollution
community needs
analyze needs of a particular community by including age group, prjected number of users within population, sources of funding, maintenance, management, and availability/accessibility of existing facilities
plants complement a design by repeating forms and masses of building, by extending lines of builing into landscape
comprehensive plan
sets goals, objectives of town over long period of time; to guide town on types of use, what to perserve, locations of new developments; does NOT set design guidelines (plants to use, etc.)
compressive strength
refers to soil's ability to withstand compressive forces from directly opposite sides
concave slope
slope bows inward, more stable
connecting corridors

corridors to connect habitats

consectutive intersections
placed at least 125' apart for safety reasons
construction sites
reduce erosion problems by having ingress/egress controls like tire scrubbers; by installing silt fencing parallel to existing contours; by using sediment basins/traps; and by not leaving disturbed areas unseeded or unmulched for more than 20 days
contour lines
never split; always close on themselves, never simply end; never cross, except to show overhang or vertical plane
convex slope
slope bows outward, less stable
critical path analysis
best way to schedule a job
critical spatial components
circulation, open space, and structures
term to describe taking away or excavation of soil from portion of a site; identified on plan when proposed contour line moves uphill from existing contour location (ie, toward higher number)
mean sea level reference point
controlled by percentage of lot coverage, height limitations, but not frontage requirements or setbacks
concave landform
design process
site analysis, bubble diagram (functional diagram), concept plan, massing diagrams
design tenants
1. odd numbers tend to unify composition while even numbers split composition; 2. mass plants together for more impact, less spotiness; 3. mass groupings together to avoid wasted space; 4. overlap massings to maximize interface between groups; 5. continue plantings below tree canopy to avoid wasted space; 6. use plants to relate to and reinforce ground plane forms; 7. recall mentally unifies a dessigm, so repeat plant use
detention basin
dry basins that only fill with water during a rain; release water at predevelopment rate
when analyzing drainage area, look to size, soil, and cover condition
drought-tolerant plants
do NOT thrive with additional water
dry well
small excavated pits backfilled with aggregate in the same manner as an infiltration trench, but designed to catch runoff directly from a roof drain or outfall; sometimes incorporated into a catch basin
due process
protects rights of people from government based on law
use back dune for development, not primary or secondary
easement, access

easement for access

easement, conservation
to restrict development potential of land for betterment of ecosystem
easement, scenic
to protect scenic views; limit development that would block views, vistas
easement, solar

easement for sunlight access

easement, utility
so utility companies can set up infrastructure on inividual's property and prevent landowner from removing or damaging it
ecological community
aggregation of interacting species living together in the same place
edge of forest has most biodiversity, because sunlight can reach edges and understory
boundaries between different habitat types; blurred; zones of transition are called ecotones; act as buffers and filters
eminent domain
government has ability to acquire private property and use it for public projects or economic development as long as fair price is paid
plants emphasize or accentuate certain points in exterior enviornment
English gardens
characterized by rolling hills, nauralistic plantings
environmental impact statement
should consider potential mitigation measures, preservatin of historic features, and ways to minimize disturbance, NOT only elements within the project boundaries; study includes recommendations for possible mitigation measures and suggestions for future monitoring
environmental site assessment
ESA; a risk assessment used in planning and feasibility stages of real estate development
erosion control
negative effects of soil erosion not properly done include contamination of groundwater, increased sedimentation in streams and rivers, increased vulnerability to more frequent and more severe flooding
fastigiate form
upright form where top and bottom are generally same width; example: Thuja occidentalis, Italian cypress
wetland fed by groundwater, dominated by peat moss, rich in mineral salts, and alkaline
term to describe adding soil to portion of site;
filter strips
vegetated with sod OR made of sand; remove particles by filtration and slow runoff
flooding potential
consider number of streams, area drained by streams, capacity of streams, and rainfall intensity
floor area ratio
ratio of a building's total floor area (gross floor area) to the size of the piece of land upon which it is built
focused open space
building cluster has strong direction and orientattion to open side
foliage type
deciuous, evergreen, and broad leaf evergreen
French gardens
more formal and orderly
geologic map
includes info on topo an cultural elements such as roads to help orientate
geologic substrate
included on soil survey
study of landforms and how they are created by such things as erosion
defining an item's location via a coordinate system or map projection; example: taking aerial photograph and defining its location on a map; not analysis, just data; used with GIS
technology that takes data from a site and makes it usable for analysis
technology used to locate and map different physical items on a site; no anaylsis, just data; survey using GPS to protect vegetation on site
grade, finish
grade after all work has been completed; aka construction grade
grade, natural
grade of original land
grade, rough
slope of land before final products like plants, hardscape are installed; rough slopes or stair-stepped slopes are best for revegetating
grades of plants for nursery stock
12 measurement grades include shade and flowering trees, deciduous shrubs, coniferous evergreens, broadleaf evergreens, roses, young plants (incl vines, groundcovers), fruit trees, small fruits (raspberries, strawberries, asparagus, etc), understock (used for grafting), seedling, bulbs/corms/tubers, and Christmas trees
finished grading of site should mimic original terrain; minimize site grading to reduce risk of erosion, reduce sediment pollution on streams and lakes and downstream water degradation, and reduce blowing dust; roads should be along ridgeline, to save money
grand urban space
80-450' wide
gray water
waste water from washing operations (not toilet or food waste though); collection of water from sinks, showers, and washing machines
green building project
intended to protect environment and preserve existing habitats as much as possible; best practices: do not drastically alter microclimates, do not do excessive cut and fill for soil, do not disturb existing flora and fauna, take into account groundwater flow
green infrastructure
aka low-impact design; examples include vegetated swales, infiltration structures, rain gardens, and green roofs; benefits include increased infiltration and groundwater recharge, decreased pollution loads on surface water, increased biodiversity, reduction in heat island effects of development, and improved air quality
greenhouse effect
refers to trapping of sun's energy by atmosphere and subsequent raising of temp of earth
groundwater recharge
NOT enhanced by extension of public sewar systems
gully erosion
identified by large channels that are obviously damaging (10+ ft deep at its worst)
habitat fragmentation
fragmentation of natural corridors that facilitate movement of organisms between habitats and encourage biodiverity; natural corridors should be protected so they don’t get fragmented
result of grid corridors, along roadways
planting at bottom of hill makes plants susceptible to frost damage
historic research
to research history of a site, use old newspapers, local historical society, US Census info
home rule
refers to municipality demanding more freedom from rulings of state
a plant that grows only in or on water
applying seed, fert, mulch, and lime in one application; do at right angles to slope, parallel to contours
ideal functional diagram
utilized before a site plan is developed to work thru which spaces will function well next to each other; deals with connections, not scale
rate of water penetration of soil surface; affected by soil type; removes particulates and pollutants that might attach to soil particles, but water soluable pollutants such as nutrients, pesticides, or salt travel thru soil dissolved in water; ponding or dewatering time is at least 3 but no more than 7 days; examples include dry wells, swale traps, catch basin traps, infiltration trenches and basins, and rain gardens
infiltration trench
2-10' deep; lined with filter fabric and filled with stone
intimate outdoor space
80' wide max
Italian gardens
more formal and orderly
Japanese gardens
simplistic; main feature is rock gardens
small grassy hill
land development regulations
include requirements for local street design, open space, lighting, subdivision standards, similar site development parameters
land use plan
look at population forecast, economic conditions, people's attitude towards land; shows different uses allowed throughout community
irregularities of earth's surface; element of topography; studied by geomorphologists; types include level, convex (high point), ridge (linear high ground), concave (low point, depression), and valley (linear depression); used for spatial definition (to create and define exterior space), to control views (sequential viewing, progressive realization), to influence movement, to affect microclimate, and for aesthetic uses; in conjunction with vegetation, landforms define viewsheds, create visual interest, influence microclimate, stormwater runoff and infiltration, and distribution of plant and animal species
landscape meaning
nature, habitat, artifact, system, problem, wealth, ideology, history, place, aesthetic
landscape preservation
to save buildings and land which have significant historical or ecological value; example: farmland, historic war building, wetland system; protect and stabilize site features rather than extensive replacement
landscape reclamation
undertaken on landscapes where features have been obliterated by development, agriculture, or mining; require construction of new lanscape features to replace what has been lost; examples included contructed wetlands and removal of invasives/replacement with natives
landscape reconstruction
depict through new construction the form and features of a nonsurving landscape or object
landscape rehabilitation
actions taken to restore environmental functions and the vitality of a landscape; repair or alter a property to be compatible for another use while preserving features of histroical or cultural significance
landscape remediation
concerned with mitigating a condition that has resulted in a degraded landscape
landscape restoration
accurately depict historic form or features of a property by reconstruction of missing features or removal or later features
new technology; stands for Light Detection and Ranging; aircrafts fly over site and shoot light which is then reflected back to aircraft; light can make its way thru thick dense vegetation; process is very quick and accurate; no analysis, just data
limit amount of grade change
because soil removal is expensive; because tree roots can be damaged thru soil removal or compaction; because natural drainage is affected
littoral zones
transition from upland to open water, usually more productive than either one; use raised decking construction to avoid disturbing fragile environment
fertile and easy to manage; typically, around 40% sand, 40% silt and 20% clay
lot layouts
grid layout; deep, narrow lots (6-8.5 lots per acre); wide, shallow lots (6-7 lots per acre); alley layout (4-8 lots per acre); z-lot (on angle)
weather conditions of a small city
map, thematic
a single attribute or theme, such as physical properties, social, cultural or economic qualities, are expressed on a map; examples include plant hardiness map, land use map, elevation range map, soil suitability map (but NOT topo)
wetland dominated by herbaceous material
master plan
to show how a town may be developed over a long period of time
maximum slope
3:1 for mowed slope
mowed once in fall; provide habitat and forage
mean sea level
reference line called a datum; line is considered to have elevation zero and other points on earth are measured to have an elevation either below or above sea level
set of lines that run north to south; longitudes
weather conditions of an individual property, residence; modified by shade trees, pavement, rooftops, etc; affects energy consumption of buildings (heating, cooling) and comfort of people in outdoor settings; can be altered based on siting of buildings and use of vegetation and shade structures
miltary crest
point on a hill in which entire slope can be seen
overall form of a landscape-- pattern of patches, edges, connectivity
native plants
native plant associations are repetition of dominant plants indigenous to a given area; using natives contributes to biodiversity, reduces or eliminates need for pesticides and fertilizer, reduces maintenance costs, and improves habitat; once estalished, natives require less care, less water, fewer inputs
noise reduction
to reduce noise, plant broadleaf evergreens; keep in mind distance of barrier between sound source and area to be protected, as well as length, height, and mass of barrier; barrier must be continuous, without gaps, to be most effective; most effective when berm/screen is close to noise source; length of barrier should be one to two times as long as the distance from source to barrier
non-renewable resources
include soil, soil, tropical rainforests
interferes with one's right to quiet enjoyment
nurse trees
nitrogen fixing trees such as locust, alder
open traverse
used for road or train line boundaries
organic linear space
view and focus constantly change as one moves thru space; sense of anticipation, opportunities for surprises
90 degree alignment maximizes number of spaces and requires widest aisle; when siting, consider proximity to dominant use area and areas with slopes under 6%; design to minimize amount of impervious surface and maintain predeveloped rate of infiltration by reducing parking space size, requiring smaller spaces for compact cars, and designing spillover parking with pervious paving; typical space is 8-10' wide x 18-20' deep; space ratios and paving materials are dictated by local ordinaces; should include 5% planting
concentrations of habitat type, like a patch of forest in the midst of a farmland
path design
for bike paths, make 7-8' wide; for pedestrian paths, make 4-6' wide; need 8' overhead and 1' side clearance; for bike paths, pull-offs should be every 2-3 miles; if trails are also used by walkers, rest areas should be every mile
functions of paving include: accommodate intense use; provide direction; suggest rhythm and rate of movement; create repose (non-direction area to stop and rest; should be equal proportions); indicate uses (like crosswalk); influence scale; provide unity and recall; serve as a setting; establish spatial character; provide visual interest
paving guidelines
one pavement should dominate; should coordinate with building; adjoining patterns should align; separate different paving materials with grade change and/or third neutral material
paving types
gravel, unit pavers, sandstone, limestone, marble, granite, fieldstone, riverstone, cobblestone, flagstone, slate, bluestone, granite sets, Belgian block, brick, CIP concrete, asphalt; rated for durability (NX interior applications, MX exterior, SX exterior where freezing will occur) and abrasion of the material (Type I heavy traffic, II, or III residential patios)
percent of slope
equals rise over run
plants that live beyond 2 years
rate at which water will drain freely through a soil
physical attributes of a site
include drainage patterns, microclimate, water table, depth to bedrock, soils, slope, wind direction
using plants to clean up site contamination; phytoextraction relies on plants' natural capacity to absorb and incorporate specfic materials; phytodegradation relies on metabolism of plants to decompose certain contaminents once they are absorbed
picturesque form
uniquely scultural, irregular
planned unit development
requested for a project that proposes higher densities and mixed uses on some portions of the site and preservation of open space on others; use PUD ordinance to modify existing land use zones
plant color
present in foliage, flowers, fruit, branches, trunk bark; dark foliage moves toward viewer, while light foliage moves away from viewer; medium tone should act as transition from light to dark
plant forms
fastigiate; columnar; spreading/horizontal; round/globular; pyramidal/conical; weeping; picturesque
plant health
reduction in avialble phophorous and potassium lead to reduced production of fruits, seeds, and root growth
plant size
large (40'+) and intermediate trees (30-40'); small trees and ornamentals (15-20'); tall shrubs (10-15'); intermediate shrubs (3-6'); low shrubs (2-3'); groundcover (6-12")
plant texture
coarse texture (large leaves, massive branches, and/or loose, open habit) is highly visible, bold, aggressive, move toward viewer, informal character; medium texture (medium leaves, branches, and/or growth habit) is transition between course and fine; fine texture (small leaves, thin branches, and/or tight growth habit) is soft, delicate, moves away from viewer, formal character
planting procedure
plant pit should be 5x width of rootball but same ht as rootball-- rootball should sit on undisturbed soil to reduce settling; backfill with additional organic matter
influenced by people living there, temperature (hardiness zone), average rainfall, type of soil, available sunlight; functional design aspects of plants include directing views, directing movement, spatial definition, screening, physical control (barriers [need to be at least 3' tall], erosion control), climate control (wind, sun)
plastic limit
point at which soil begins to exhibit plastic behavior
pole construction
minimizes excavation, reduces compaction of ground surface, and allows surface drainage thru deck
police power
government has ability to enforce order and enact zoning regs and building codes
amount of pore space in a soil; related to grain size distribution and colsolidation
porous pavement
benefits include reduction of runoff, infiltration of more water into soil and groundwater; does not filter pollutants; contains 20-35% void space (because sand is eliminated from agg mix) for water infiltration; does not hold up well under heavy traffic
post occupancy evaluations
to make better future designs by learning from past designs
public opinion
get via town meetings, interviews, surveys, visual preference survey
pyramidal form
plant form where top is narrower than bottom; example: pine tree, spruce
division of a Cartesian plane
qualitative data
less formal and can involve techniques like in-depth interviews, field observations; will answer why
quality of life
what benefits the people? What makes them feel safe and secure? Quality communities mean a sense of place, human scale, self-contained neighborhoods, diversity, transit-friendly design, trees, alleys and parking to the rear, humane architecture, outdoor rooms, and maintenance & safety; common pathway between dewlling si best way to encourage contact between neighbors, better than park
quantitative data
precise data in which quantity is recorded and based on numbers; examples include counts of people and census data
quarter section
one quarter section equals 160 acres
rain garden
aka bioretention basins; remove a lot of nutrients and heavy metals naturally; sized to drain away in 3 days; include 2' deep planting medium
needed for ADA complaince; preferred graduient is 8.33%, or 12:1 ratio; max length should be 30' before landing; should be 5' wide for 2-way traffic, with handrails on either side and 6" curb
rate of runoff
affected by length of storm, overall size of watershed, amount of vegetation in watershed; not affected by size of catch basin
rational method
used to calculate peak discharge
renewable resources
trees, wind
retaining walls
should be 4' ht or less to eliminate need for engineering or reinforcing; needs weep holes and batter (6:1), with swale at top
retention basin
holds water in a pool with the only outlet through emergency spillways that allow basin to overflow in a controlled manner; loses water thru infiltration and evaporation
points uphill (ie, toward higher numbers)
ridge line
shows connection of at least 2 different high points of hills
best location for road system
rill erosion
characterized by small channels that abrade and intertwine (a few inches deep at its worst)
riparian rights
grant a landowner access to and from water via their property, as well as build out upon water if approved by local government; transfer with deed
riparian zone
area of interface between land and stream/river; restoration takes into account vegetation types and overhang, shaded area, angle and ht of stream banks, undercut banks, channel width, water width/velocity/depth, etc.
rounded form
plant that is round, spherical; example: globe spruce, Euro beech
sampling, quadrant
involves setting up quadrants and recording everything within each quadrant
sampling, random
sampling, stratified
allows specific areas to be chosen beforehand for sampling, using items such as aerial photographs
sampling, systematic
random sampling method using systematic approah
largest mineral particle in soil separates; characterized by large pore space allowing goood aeration and rapid passage of water
best options for promoting conversation include U-shape, L-shape and linear across from e/o; purposes include rest/wait, converse, observe, study, eat; seat with wall behind gives sense of security; can be modular or intergrated into design; seat dimensions: 18" ht seat, 15" ht back, 12-18" deep seat, with armrests at 6-9" above seat
one section equals 640 acres of land
sediment basins
aka silt basin; used for sites larger than 5 acres; used to capture sediment on the disturbed site
sediment trap
smaller versions of sediment basins, for use on sites less than 5 acres
sedimentary rocks
formed when sediments are deposited by wind, water, gravity and the pressure forces them together into rock layers; examples: limestone, sandstone
sense of enclosure
strongly implied by building walls situated on 2 or 3 sides of an area and completely delineated by walls on all 4 sides; full sense of enclosure occurs with distance to height ratio of 1:1; loss of enclosure occurs with distance to height ratio of 4:1; ideal viewing distance of building is 2:1 (at 27 degree angle)-- so ideal ratio of between 1 and 3
septic leaching field
limited by slow or fast rate of permeability (not moderate rate) and shallow depth to water table
to provide shade, install deciduous trees, overhangs, arbors with vines, and louvers; best way to provide summer shade (cooling) but allow winter sun (warming) is to plant a deciduous tree; locate sunscreens on western and southwestern sides of buildings to reduce heat and provide shade; medium trees located 15-30' from buildings are most effective; locate trees for shade where tree's distance from building is 1/4 to 1/3 tree's ht; shade reduces evaopration and humidity
shear strength
refers to soil's ability to withstand pressure from downhill force; measure of frictional resistance and cohesion of soil; affected by soil's composition, structure, loading conditions
sheet erosion
occurs where there is uniform slope and runoff flows in a sheet
sight distance
based on driver being able to see an object 6" high, from 3'9" eye level
needs to be placed less than 10 degrees from eyelevel to be read/noticed; easier to read light images on dark colors than other way around
intermediate sized mineral particles in soil separates
site analysis checklist
check site condition (existing buildings, roads, past uses, etc.); zoning regulations (setbacks, permitted uses, etc); landscape ordinance; land development regulations (storm water requirements, lighting requirements, etc); utilities access (to gas, sewer, etc); traffic (access to site, etc); topography (orientation of slopes, stability, etc.); soils/geology (soil types, depth to bedrock, water table, etc); hydrology (drainage pattern on and off site, wetlands, etc); vegetation/wildlife (types and quality, etc.); climate (wind directon, solar access); historic/cultural features; existing parks or public areas (local aesthetic); environmental concerns (past site uses, impact of development, etc.)
site inventory and analysis
includes vegetation, topography, utilities on site; look at project program, existing site conditions, all permit requirements, cost to perform inventory and analysis; take into account local zoning ordinances, easements, setbacks, lot coverage limits, development regulations, site topography, size of site when determining if site will work for program; check for noise pollution, deed restrictions, wetlands, steep slopes that would make development difficult; identify patterns of vehicular circulation; focused process of collecting and mapping essential attribute data for the site and its context; when mapping wetlands as part of site inventory, use wetland inventory, soils maps, aerial photography, and on-site field assessment; "focused process of collecting and mapping essential attribute data for site and its context"
site utilities plan
includes existing water, electric, gas, telecommunications, sewage, storm water, plus existing structures like utility poles, overhead wires, fire hydrants, utility boxes
site visit
assess significant views; indentify existing landscape character; inventory architectural features
slope 2:1
absolute max allowed for site without experiencing erosion; all 2:1 slopes should be covered with groundcover or other plant material (not turf)
slope 3:1
preferred max slope for most lawn and planting areas
slope 4:1
max slope maintainable by lawn mower
slope aspect
aka orientation of slope; direction slope faces (north, northeast, etc)
slope failure
arise because of overloading slope with wieght of buildings or roads, increasing fill on slope without adequate draingae, removing vegetation, increasing slope grade, increasing slope length by cutting bottom of slope, changing surface and/or subsurface drainage
slope percentages
0-1% is too flat for proper drainage; 1-5% is ideal and preferred for residential and commercial; 2% max for athletic fields; 3% point at which ground's surface becomes obvious, people are aware it's not flat; 5-10% good building conditions but requires more careful siting for single family homes; 5-8% commercial development possible but difficult; 10-15% "rolling", housing units should be split-level and retaining walls may be required; 15% and above "steep", difficult for roads, homes; 8% and above prohibited for commercial buildings with parking lots; 10% max for walkways
slope, east
morning sun exposure; indirect sun exposure in the afternoon
slope, north
no direct sun exposure in winter; early morning and late afternoon sun exposure in summer; exposure to cold NW winter winds
slope, south
exposure to sun throughout the day in winter; direct exposure to midday sun in summer; exposure to summer wind but protection from cold NW winter wind
slope, west
indirect exposure to morning sun, exposure to hot afternoon summer sun; exposure to both summer and winter winds
plants soften or loosen the harshness of architecture
soil bearing capacity
consider when locating a structure
soil pH
acidic=lower than 7; alkaline= higher than 7; ideal= between 5.5 and 7.0; neutral= 7; to make more acidic (less alkaline), add aluminum sulfate; to decrease acidity (to make more alkaline), add lime
soil strength
soil's ability to resist deformation; a function of friction and cohesion of grain-to-grain contact in a soil
soil structure
arrangement of soil particles and how they are grouped together into aggregates
soil survey
includes info on slope, depth to bedrock, soil texture, acidity/alkalinity, permeability, depth to seasonal water table, depth to bedrock, erodiability, rock, drainage characteristics, geologic substrate, plus info on management techniques, engineering characteristics, and uses for land; do NOT provide info on historic land uses; soil analysis tests fertility and agricultural suitability
soil texture
relative percentages of primary soil particles, or separates, in soil mass
soil types
silt= most erodible; clay=middle; loam=least erodible
soil, firm
term for soil that required adequate amount of pressure from 2 fingers to crush it
soil, friable
term for soil that is easily broken into smaller pieces with little to no effort
soil, loose
term for soil that does not hold together
soil, plastic
term for soil that can be easily molded or deformed and remain that way
solar radiation map
need to use slope gradient, slope aspect, and vegetation layers to make map useful for analysis in GIS; by combining info on slope gradient/aspect and vegetation, shows areas that are very warm, warm, cool, and very cool
solar reflection
in cold-weather climates, windows should face south in order to avoid cold northwest winds in winter and absorb as much of sun's rays on short winter days; southeast facing is absolute best for wind and sun; in colder climates, south facing below an exposed crest is favored
spatial leaks
occur when views extend outside an enclosed space
splash erosion
results of raindrop impact on unprotected soils
spot elevations
corners of buildings, manhole covers, landings, tops and bottoms of retaining walls, steps, high points of swales, invert elevations, rim elevations, etc.
spreading form
plant that is lower to ground and spreads in width; example: suacer magnolia, dwarf Jap yew
vegetation, paving, geotextiles, stone, mulch, or combo
riser height should be between 4"-7" and should not vary in a set of steps; tread depth should be 11" minimum; twice the riser plus the tread should equal 26" (2R + T=26); 4' ht between landings; 5' wide steps for 2-way traffic; contain using cheek walls; handrails should be 32-36" above nose of treads in set of steps; space railings 20-30' apart for large urban plazas
stream assessment
done using Rosgen method which uses 4 levels of characterization (geomorphic, morphological, etc)
stream bank stabilization
to stabilize bank via new vegetation, use live stakes, branch packing, or cribwall; to stablize without vegetation, use gabions or deflectors
stream buffer
typically, min width of buffer is 100 ft OR buffer meets 100 year floodplain standards; stream zone is first 25' of bank, middle zone is next 25' of bank (so 50' from stream; this is 100 year flood mark), and outermost zone is area of transition; goal of buffer is to recreate or maintain predeveloped conditions of overland sheet flow, infiltration, and process of filtration and deposition provided by vegetation
narrow and curvilinear are most pedestrian friendly and safest; woonerf design; traffic calming meaures include changes in road width, changes in grade, changes in paving texture and color
subdivision regulation
sewer and water services, among others things, designed to meet a sub reg
subsurface conditions
key conditions that affect design are soil bearing capacity and water table
summer solstice
longest day of the year; June 21; sun is at it's highest point over earth and total number of sunlight hours is longest
convex landform
surface drainage
identify watershed amd seasonal fluctuations to determine surface drainage characteristics
survey plan
aka recorded plat; legal documents that indicates new property lines on subdivided lot
survey, boundary
delineates boundaries of property in legal terms; used to establish true property corners of a lot; needed to obtain building permit; includes existing street-right-of-way and utility easement information
survey, cadastral
used to restore property lines in Public Land Survey System
survey, land
used to establish lengths and directions of boundary lines and not necessary for building permits
survey, mortgage
shows property boundaries, building locations, but not topography
survey, plot plan
shows all existing and proposed items as well as contours and site boundaries
survey, quantity
used in construction to obtain quantities of work to take place on site
survey, soil
provides information about soil type, soil qualities, topography, geologic substrate
survey, topographic
shows contour lines but not structure; shows property lines, easements, wetlands, contour lines
meeting the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs; priciples include do not harm; be cautious in making decisions; design with nature and culture; use decision-making hierarchy of preservation, conservation, and regeneration; provide regenerative systems as intergenerational equity; support a living process; use a systems thinking approach; use a collaborative and ethical approach; maintain integrity in leadership and research; foster environmental stewardship
sustainable design
examples include reusing old buildings for new purpose; placing parking amongst vegetation rather than removing vegetation; using porous pavement; purchasing materials from manuafcturers in 500 mile radius of job site
swimming complexes
should always have emergency access, fencing, and posted safety regulations
testing soil
proctor test done to determine max density of soil; hand test done to determine consistency of soil; sane cone test done to determine density of natural or compated soil, for stbility analysis
topographic map
aka topographic survey; displays the relief of a site by way of contour lines; info can include easements, property lines, spot elevations, contour lines, wooded areas, manholes, wetlands, utilities, buildings, parking areas, etc.; common to use different colors to portray different slope gradients; assessed in conjunction with subsurface drainage
broken up into 36 divisions called sections, numbered from right to left and then left to right in serpentine fashion, beginning in northeast corner
transfer of development rights
could be used to protect historic landmarks, historic districts, agricultural lands, natural resources
transit oriented developments
designed so person can walk from edge of town to town center in 5 minutes; encourages mass transit use; makes town pedestrain friendly; discourages use of vehicles
transition space
have landing, entry be a space to transition from inside to outside, and vice versa
tread to riser ratio
ideal ratio adds up to 24-26"
deciduous trees are a good source of shade; evergreens provide wind breaks, spatial enclosure, screening; applications for trees include street, lawn, residential, and pit-- difference is amount of soil for tree to grow in; average life span of urban trees is less than 10 years, due to drainage problems, mechanical damage, and pollution
plants are common thread, visiually unifying various components
urban infill
redeveloping vacant or blighted urban areas; benefits include renewing old neighborhoods, filling in missing tracts, decreasing traffic, cleaning up dirty and abandoned sites, preserving and enhanving character, limiting urban sprawl; disadvantages include higher cost to build (versus on greenfield), old and inflexible zoning regs, neighbor disagreements over new use
urban sprawl
tends to follow linear path out of city into suburbs (versus radial or circular layouts); characterized by low density populations
USGS map
include geological maps with info on soil, bedrock; natural hazard maps with info on fault lines, earthquake zones, eruption history of volcanoes, areas of landslide risk; natural resource maps with info on groundwater, aquifer locations, geothermal info
include on site inventory-- water, electricity, natural gas, telecommunications, stormwater, sewage
points downhill (ie, toward lower numbers)
apply for one to change use of a site (from commercial to residential, etc)
vegetated swale
encourages infiltration, filters water, costs less than pipes, and reduces velocity of runoff; sides are 1:2 minimum and 1:4 preferred
can affect perception of air temperatures by reducing air movement
view framers
plants frame views
viewshed map
illustrates locations that can be seen from an individual viewing point
visual quality of a site
wall materials
STONE: masonry/wet wall OR dry stack wall; solid wall OR veneer on CMUs; cut or uncut stones; BRICK: streatchers, headers, soldiers; CONCRETE: cast in place OR precast blocks (concrete blocks, slump blocks, decorative block); WOOD; WROUGHT IRON'
walls and fences
define space; screen views; separate functions; modify climate (ie to protect from NW winter wind or funnel in SW summer breezes); use as sitting elements (18" ht); use as visual elements; parts include base, wall/fence surface, and cap; ha-ha wall/fence is sunken and hidden; design with wind load and lateral strength in mind when designing freestanding walls
characteristics include plasticity, motion (static or dynamic), sound, reflectivity (depends on slope/gravity, container size and shape, container roughness, temperature, wind, and light); uses include consumption, irrigation, climate control, sound control, and recreation; visual uses include flat static water (pool, pond), flowing water (moving thru well-defined channel), falling water (free fall, obstructed fall, sloped fall), and jets (single-orifice, spray, aerated, formed); pond has vegetation while pool does not; pumps are either submersible or larger centrifugal ones
water quality analysis
develop data and information about upstream watershed and the receving water body
water table
the upper surface of the zone of saturation; the zone of saturation is where the pores and fractures of the ground are saturated with water; not good to build on high water table
area where all water that is either in ground or flows on top of soil drains into same place; made up of stream channel, floodplain, upland areas, groundwater
weeping form
pendulous; example: weeping willow, cranberry cotoneaster
wet pond
specially designed pond to act as rentention basin; includes 6" to 2' deep marsh/littoral zone
area inundated or saturated by water often enough and long enough to support vegetation that is typically adapted to life in wet soil conditions; identified by the presence of hydric soils and hydrophytic vegetation; permit required for depositing or placing of fill materials, dredging or removing soil or materials, constructing, operating, or maintaining any use or development, or draining surface water; for wetland mapping, use wetland inventory, soils maps, aerial photography, and on-site field assessment; most important water source for wetlands is groundwater; types of wetlands include tidal, non-tidal, forested, scrub-shrub, or emergent
wetland delineation
defined by changes in vegetative structure
wetlands, composit
fed by local lakes and streams
wetlands, estuarine
tidal waters, salty tidal marshes; semi-enclosed with plant material; areas without hydrophytes or soil
wetlands, groundwater
fed by high water tables
wetlands, lacustrine
lakes, reservoirs; found in depression; low salinity; plant cover of less than 30%
wetlands, marine
oceans, coastlines; areas without soils but with hydrophytes
wetlands, palustrine
marshes, bogs, swamps; salinity level greater than 0.5%; areas with hydrophytes and hydric soils
wetlands, riparian
fed by streams
wetlands, riverine
rivers and streams; dominated by plant material
wetlands, surface
fed by runoff
strong, cold winter winds comes from northwest; cool, southern summer winds come from southwest; evergreen windscreens should be at least 3 rows think, and deciduous windscreens should be up to 6 rows thick; windbreaks can include mounds of earth, tall walls, hedges of plants; windbreaks should direct wind up and over, so use lower plant material on windwarn side and higher material on leeward side
using native plants; reduces maintenance and water requirements because native plants are used to local conditions
zoning codes
local government's ability to enforce certain rules and regualtions regarding land use; examples include open space requirements and stormwater management requirements; addresses parking configuration (spaces based on ratios of so many spaces per dwelling, or seats in theater or SF of retail space), lot sizes, road widths, road profile restrictions, sign requirements