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31 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Alliteration
Most often used to draw attention to a particular point.
Also can set the mood by using onomatopoeia.
Anecdotes
Anecdotes are used to provide a real life incident to support your case. Anecdotes place an idea in the minds of the audience that facts cannot.
Also makes the bigger story seem more believable (reality) which gives the writer authority.
Attacks
Displays faults of the opposition for the audience to realise and seperate themselves from.
Clichés
Helps the reader to feel familiar with the material presented and often conveys meaning in an economical way.
Connotations
Connotations can be used simply throughout a speech to add extra meaning and force. The audience picks up the connotations and it affects their judgment.
Emotive Language
The use of emotive language allows no room for the possibility of any other opinion and can therefore emotionally manipulate the reader to agree.
Also shows that the writer cares...persuasive.
Evidence (facts/statistics)
This is a rational method of persuasion. It cannot be argued against. The main effect is to improve the validity or authority of the argument.
This gives the writer power as they have proven that they have (a lot of) knowledge on the subject/they're an expert so the writing becomes more believable.
Inclusive Pronouns
This type of language engages the audience because of its friendly tone. It directly involved us in the debate - we cannot sit back.
Also it can soften the tone as it is like you're on the side of the writer, 'we' 'our'.
Metaphor
This technique aims to create an image in the reader's mind that helps to make the point being argued graphic, striking and more easily understood.
Expert Opinion
Adds authority and substance to the argument. Persuades the audience members who are more rationally inclined than emotionally inclined by demonstrating that the writer is not just pushing his/her beliefs on others.
Hyperbole
This is used to make an issue seem even more important and dramatic than it is.
This is used to shock the reader then let them find what they do (more likely to act on it).
This also is used to make the reader continue reading.
Puns
This is done to keep the reader interested and reading.
Reason and Logic
By achnowledging both sides, the writer can present logical reasons why one side is more convincing than another.
Repetition
Simple construction that strengthens the force of a point. It emphasises a point to express its importance and also makes it stick in the reader's mind.
Rhetorical Questions
Forces audiences to engage and then to agree to the only implied answer.
Tone
Tone reflects the writer's attitudes or emotions towards their subject matter or audience. Changes of tone are important as they signal a new direction, reflecting a shift in attitude or feeling that affects the reader.
Adjectives
Helps the reader to picture (creates imagery) and understand by using it to something they're familiar with.
Direct address
This makes the feel involved and helps them build an opinion.
Exclusive pronoun
Isolates a person/subject: he/you.
Humour/Irony
Softens the mood on maybe a serious story/topic so the reader still feels engaged.
Imperatives
'Bossy' verbs - give no choice, establishes the writer's authority.
Informal language
Chatty, friendly tone to make the reader feel on a 'personal level' with the writer and thus are more likely to believe the writing - unless used inappropriately - opposite effect.
Lists
This makes the reader trust the writer as it seems they have thought everything.
Modal verbs
Gives the reader choice, more gentle, advice. Writer has less authority.
Opinions
Can argue a point which engages the reader and triggers an idea or response.
Rhythm and rhyme
Feels pleasant to read; the flow feels natural. Can feel hypnotic to reader - to persuade.
Semantic field
Re-enforces message.
Simile
Helps the reader picture and understand what is being described by comparing it to something the reader is familiar with. Increases understanding.
Standard English
Plain, easy to understand and engages the reader.
Superlatives
Convincing to reader - persuasive.
Technical language
Interesting for reader.
Inclusive if the reader understands.
Exclusive if they don't understand (jargon).