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65 Cards in this Set

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- temperature
- ph
- concentration
What factors affect the rate enzymes react?
What are hydra?
- simple multicellular animals
- found in cool, clean, fresh waters of lakes, ponds, and streams
What is the cnidoblast of a hyrdra?
- contains a capsule, or nematocyst which is filled with fluid and a coiled thread tube that when everted aids in capturing the prey and locomotion
What is lichen?
composed of alga and fungus living together in a type of symbiotic relationship (mutualism)
with iodine solution solution, which produces a dark purple color
How can starch be tested for?
only when cells are dividing
When can chromosomes be seen?
What is chromatin?
dispersed chromosome material
diploid
What is the number of chromosomes in a somatic cell called?
nature of the hereditary material
How is species determined?
What is a dyad?
pair of chromosomes
DNA is duplicated
What happens in Interphase 1?
Prophase 1
When does crossing over occur?
same
In mitosis what is the chromosome number in daughter cells in relation to those in the parent cell?
Prophase
In what phase does spindle fibers form, nucleolus disappear.
- green plants
- animals
- fungi
What life forms rely directly or indirectly on photosynthesis?
leaves
What is the major photosynthetic organ of a plant?
- NADPH
- ATP
What product is produced in the thylakoid membrane?
K level
Which orbit contains electrons with the lowest energy level?
NADPH is formed
What is formed in light dependent reactions?
CO2 is reduced to a simple carbohydrate
What happens in a light independent reaction?
elodea
What organism is used to study the rate of photosynthesis
absorb heat from the flood lamp
What is the function of the heat shield?
yellow-green
What is the color of chlorophyll B?
aerobic respiration
Which of the respiration types is most efficient i converting potential energy in food into a usable form for cells?
- CO2
- H2O
- Energy
What is produced in the completed oxidation of glucose?
What is decarboxylation?
process that removes CO2 from various molecules
H2CO3
What material is produced from respiration that can affect the pH of a cell?
guard cells
What cells control the opening and closing of the stomata in leaves?
- with thin walled structures
- keep cells moist
- provide exchange between oxygen and carbon dioxide
How are all respiratory systems designed?
by means of a tracheal system
How does the grasshopper breathe?
using a simple lung?
How does the garden snail breathe?
to absorb CO2
What is the function of KOH in a respirometer?
respiratory pore
How does air enter the snail?
large multicellular organisms
What is transport systems needed by?
all cells
The delivery of nutrients and elimination of waste is essential to which cells?
Describe diffusion.
- slow process
- important to delivering materials in cells
- important process in removing waste from cells
food vacuole flow
Materials enter and leave cells by what process?
What are traceophytes?
vascular plants
What are tracheids?
join to form; xylem, cellulose, pholem
Xylem
Where are water and minerals transported through?
stomata
What is the opening through which gases enter and leaves the plants called?
auricle
Blood is returned to the heart of a fish from the tail fin through what vessel?
- it is more stable in; pH, temperature, and salt concentration
Why is light thought to have originated in seas rather than fresh water?
they lack fluids analagous to tissue fluids in animals
What do plants lack
it has a high concentration of salt.
Describe estuary soil.
decreases in size
What happens to an animal cell exposed to a hypotonic environment?
stored in the leaves
What happens to excess salt in pickleweed?
excreted from the leaves
what happens to excess salt in alkali heath?
they are of a tubular nature
What kind of excretory system does man and earthworms have?
- gene pools
- gene frequencies
- rate of genetic change
What areas do biologists study by using principles of genetics?
- p+q=1
- p2+2pq+q2=1
What formula can be used to calculate the frequency of an allele?
.25
If 25% of individuals in a population show a recessive trait, what value should be assigned.
What is the chi-square test?
compares observed with expected events
it is consider to be highly significant.
How is a probability value of less than 1% regarded?
- albinism
- color blindness
- down's syndrome
What are examples of inheritable diseases?
- algae
- fungi
- protozoans
What are examples of Eukaryotes?
nucleus
What organelle is most noticeable under a light microscope?
to prevent the cell from rupturing
In spite of chemical variants of the cells among Eukaryotes the function is the same, what is the function?
glycoralyeles
What carbohydrates strengthen the cell membranes of animal cells and help protect them again protozoan?
no
Are all protozoans pathogenic to humans?
cilia
Amoeba move by means of what?
blastopores
What structures are found in yeast?
sporangiospores
What structures in mold germinates into new hypha?
rotifera
Where is mastax found?
Describe spirogyra?
- green algae
- carries out sexual reproduction
- contains spiral shaped chloroplasts