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41 Cards in this Set

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Delta

deposition of sediment at the mouth of a river into a slow moving or still body of water

Estuary

Basically, the water between the river and ocean, often found in connection with deltas.

Ex: Chesapeake Bay


Littoral Drift

Transportation of sediment along a coast at an angle to the shoreline.




Ex: Forming a sandbar

Barrier Island

Elongated areas of parallel to the mainland

Spit

Long, narrow ridge of deposited material extended from the mainland into the sea

Groins

Rigid structures that intercepts water flow and limits movement of sediment

Sand Dunes

Hill of sand built by water and sand moved by wind

Artificial Levee

wall that blocks water from going where we don’t want it to go. They prevent rivers from flooding cities in a storm surge. But if it breaks, the consequences can be disastrous.

Review the different factors that are believed to be linked to sea level rise

1. Thermal Expansion - when water heats up, it expands. About 1/2 of the past century's rise in sea level is attributable to warmer oceans simply occupying more space.




2. Melting of glaciers and polar ice caps




3. Ice loss from Greenland and West Antarctica





Know how the dramatic rise will be impacted coastal cities and the people that live there

- Hundred of millions of people live in areas that will become increasingly vulnerable to flooding. Higher sea levels would force them to abandon their homes and relocate. Low-lying islands could be submerges completely.

Be able to explain how different coastal features, or other mechanisms, can be used to help protect land and property

Be able to explain how different coastal features, or other mechanisms, can be used to help protect land and property

End Moraine

The drift may be deposited along the edge of the glacier in the form of a more-or-less continuous ridge.

Ground Moraine

A tendency toward the orderly recession of the ice front results in the deposition of a sheet of till (and even some stratified drift) in front of the melting ice mass. This deposit is often characterized as a rolling plain and is called this.

Outwash Plain

Gently sloping plains composed of the glaciofluvial sediments deposited in front of end moraines are called this.

Kame

Glaciofluvial sediments carried by such a stream may be deposited in the ice cavity and be left as a mound or hill called this.

Esker

As the glacier melts, these stream bed deposits remain in the form of sinuous ridges called this.

Drumlin

- “Tear-drop” shaped hill streamlined in the direction of ice flow




-Long, pointed edge indicates the direction of a glacier’s movement

Tarn

A lake that forms within a glacial circular basin; place where a glacier used to sit is now a lake

Paternoster Lakes

A group of lakes connected by a single stream within a glacial, alpine valley

Arête

- A ridge that forms where 2 glaciers were once located




- Thin, almost knife-like ridge between 2 U-shaped valleys

Horn

- The peak of a mountain with at least three arêtes




- A pyramidal, sharp-pointed peak

Col

- A low spot or pass along an arête or between peaks




- Saddle-like narrow depression formed by a reduced arête

Hanging Valley

- A side valley in the wall of a glacial trough




- Valleys carved by tributary glaciers that are left high above the primary valley

Review the different factors that are believed to be linked to glacial melt

- Glacial retreat on the other hand occurs as a result of sublimation (transition of ice to vapor), snow evaporation (evaporation of liquid water in the snow), strong scouring winds, and ice melt.




- The process of a glacier getting smaller is called ablation

Be able to calculate migration rate of glaciers

Add them all up and divide by the number you have.

Color

Tropics are redder while midlatitudes are browner; organic matter and water can have major influences on soil color

Structure

Granular Structure = Petri Dish




Subangular Blocky = some angles but not all fits together




Angular Blocky = Blocks that fit together and are all have angles




Prismatic = long rectangular pieces

Horizonation

Remember how you differentiated between the horizons of the two cores.



- Top of the prairie is bigger and more gray compared to the forest.




- Illinois Prairie has more organic matter incorporated into it




- Prairie has more organic deposition


Texture

Be able to read the texture triangle, identify a particular soil texture when given percentages of each particle size.

Be able to interpret Climographs

Temperature = Line Graph




Precipitation = Bar Graph

Understand how different climates change with latitude, elevation, topography (mountain ranges), proximity to oceans, etc.

Understand how different climates change with latitude, elevation, topography (mountain ranges), proximity to oceans, etc.

Rain Shadow

is an area of dry climate that leeward down-wind side of a mountain range

Have an understanding of where different soil orders are found in the United States and why

Have an understanding of where different soil orders are found in the United States and why

Understand where different biomes are found across the globe and what characteristics make them up

1. Tropical Climate - average rainfall and precipitation at least 2.4in (60mm)




2. Dry Climate (Arid/semi-arid) - desert, cool/dry climate, precipitation is low




3. Temperate Climate - humid summers, warmest month average (72F), changeable weather, rainy summers and dry winters




4. Continental Climate - Warmest month temperatures > 71.6F




5. Polar Climate - warmest temperature below 50 F, temperature almost never exceeds 32 F; covered by permanent layer of ice, tundra

Have an understanding of how scientists use lake and wetland sediments to collect pollen fossils

Pollen grains that are washed or blown into lakes can accumulate in sediments and provide a record of past vegetation.




Different types of pollen in lake sediments reflect the vegetation that was present around the lake and, therefore, the climate conditions favorable for that region.




Pollen that is trapped in deeper layers indicates a species that has existed in a particular area for longer than a species whose pollen is found at more shallow depths.

Be able to explain how those pollen fossils can help describe how species moved over time, and be able to calculate species migration rates

Find the distance between the two locations on Google earth, and then divide them by 130 (centuries) to find the migration rate in km/century.

Be able to interpret pollen diagrams:


- Understand how they are divided into different zones


- Be able to explain how different tree species influence the climate of a given area

Check out the Pollen Diagram Graph on Pg 128

Be able to identify and define the different seed dispersal mechanisms

Wind - Parachutes, wings, other methods of staying afloat.




Water - Seeds developed for floating, seeds that grow over water




Animal - Hooks, burrs, or 'velcro', edible fruits, seeds carried by small mammals or bird (nuts)




Exploding Fruit - Seed pods that appeared to be exploded open or ready to 'burst at the seams'




Poricidal - Seed pods with many holes (pores) allowing seeds to fall out

Be able to explain and identify the different regions and borders that make up Illinois

1. The Central Plain - The Great Lakes Plains, The Driftless Plains, The Till Plains




2. The Shawnee Hills




3. The Gulf Coast

Know some of the basic facts about the history of vegetation in Illinois

- 918,000 acres of "natural" wetland remained statewide in the 1980s




- Of surviving wetlands, only about 6,000 acres are high in ecological quality and undisturbed.




- 2,300 acres of high quality remaining, compared to 22 million in 1820.




- 4.4 million acres of forest land, compared to 13.8 million acres prior to European settlement.




- 97% of Illinois are classified as hardwoods, 3% are classified as conifers




- Illinois ranks 49th among states in percent of land remaining in original vegetation.

Have an understanding of some of the different landforms and geographic features that are present in Illinois, or have been present through history

1. The Central Plains -


- The Great Lakes Plains -


- The Driftless Plains -


- The Till Plains -




2. The Shawnee Hills -




3. The Gulf Coastal -