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25 Cards in this Set

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How would you prepare a Aldehyde?


(aldehyde synthesis is by oxidation of primary alcohols)

How would you prepare an Aldehyde from Alkene--> Olefin (double bond at alpha carbon)



1.O3 2.Zn, H+ --->

1.O3 2.Zn, H+ --->

How would you prepare an Aldehyde from an Ester?

How would you prepare a Ketone from an Alkene(Olefin)

How would you prepapre a Ketone from a Secondary ROH

Prepare an Ketone from an aromatic ring?




-add ketone to an aromatic ring

Prepare a Ketone from an acid chloride?

Prepare a ketone from a Alkyne?

Aldeyhde to Carboxylic acid

-use H3O instead of H2O?


-use H3O instead of H2O?

What are more reactive? Aldeyhdes or ketones?


and due to what 2 things?

Aldehydes


1) due to sterics 2) due to electronics

base-catalyzed "Hydration" of Aldeyhdes and Ketones

acid-catalyzed "Hydration" of Aldehydes and Ketones

-CN addition of Aldehydes/Ketones


"Cyanohydrin formation"

ONLY BASE-CATALYZED

ONLY BASE-CATALYZED

Nu: addition to Aldeyhdes and Ketones


(make a new C-C bond)

Primary Amine addition (RNH2) to aldeyhes/ketones




IMINE MECHANISM

ENAMINE MECHANISM

ALdeyhyde/ketone "Wolff-Kishner Reaction"


special amine reaction with hydrazine, followed by a strong base




-reduce to alkanes

ROH addition, acid-catalyzed




Ketone --> ketal




Aldehyde --> Acetal

Ketone/Aldeyhe to alkene





phosohorus Ylide Nu:






phosohorus Ylide Nu:

1,2 addition to C=O

Grignard and R-Li

1,4 addition to C=O




"Micheal addition", "Conjugate Addition"


alpha,beta -unsaturated carbonyls (aldehydes and ketones)

1,4 amine addition

1,4 Cuprate R:- addition

2-cyclohexenone




1) Gridnard and R-Li / H3O+ give...


2) Cuprates give...

Ketone and Aldeyhde. Protect group for C=O