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63 Cards in this Set

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Phylum Cnidaria

Cnidarians are soft bodied carnivores with radial symmetry, stinging tentacles, and only one opening (mouth / anus)

Cnidarians have

Cnidocytes (stinging cells) with nematocysts (harpoon like poison filled structure)

Three Cnidarian layers

Ectoderm (outer layer)

Mesoglea (jelly like with neural network)

Gastroderm (where digestion takes place in gastrovascular cavity)

Two Cnidarian life stages:

Polyp: sessile with tentacles up

Medusa: motile with tentacles down

Feeding Cnidarian

Catches prey with tentacles and pulls into the gastrovascular cavity

Digestion takes place and nutrients are absorbed through the gastroderm

Waste materials are released back out the mouth

Cnidarian Respiration, circulation, and excretion

All occurs through diffusion through body wall

Cnidarian Response

Loose association of nerves create a neural network in mesoglea

Statocysts enable the cnidarian to detect gravity

Ocelli are light detecting organs

Cnidarian Movement

Circular and longitudinal muscles enable movement

Cnidarian Reproduction

Asexually. Polyps can bud off new organisms.

Sexually. Separate medusa sexes release eggs and sperm into water (external fertilization) The fertilized egg then grows into a free swimming larvae. Larvae eventually settle and form a polyp stage. The polyp then buds off new medusa.

3 classes of Cnidaria


Jellyfish (medusa major life stage)


Branching polyp colonies


Contains anemones and corals (polyp major life stage)

Phylum Platyhelminthes (flatworms)

Flatworms are soft bodied , flattened worms that are acoelomate and have bilateral symmetry with cephalization

Flatworms can be free living or parasitic

Phylum Platyhelminthes (flatworms) feeding

Free living flatworms Carnivore scavengers that suck up material through a pharynx into a gastrovascular cavity. Food is digested and distributed by the cavity. Waste is released back out into the pharynx.

Phylum Platyhelminthes (flatworms) parasitic

Do not have a complex digestive system, rather, they just absorb nutrients through the body by diffusion

Phylum Platyhelminthes (flatworms) Respiration, Circulation & Excretion

Bodies are thin and flat so they rely on diffusion of materials through the body wall

Some free living flatworms have flame cells that act to filter metabolic waste and remove it.

Phylum Platyhelminthes (flatworms) Response

Cephalized with an aggregation of neurons (ganglia) and sense organs

Two nerve cords run down the body

May have eyespots to detect light

Parasitic flatworms have a much simpler nervous system

Phylum Platyhelminthes (flatworms) Movement

Free living flatworms have cilia that allow them to glide through the water and wiggle their muscles

Phylum Platyhelminthes (flatworms) Reproduction

Asexual: Fragmentation (fission) by splitting into 2 pieces

Sexual: Most are hermaphrodites (male and female)

Parasitic: Complex life cycles with more than 1 host

Three Classes of Flatworms

Turbellaria: Free living marine or fresh water

Trematoda (Flukes): Parasites that infect the internal organs of the host

Cestoda: Parasitic tapeworms. Infect the digestive system of the host.

Phylum Nematode (roundworms)

Slender unsegmented worms that have a pseudocoelom

Phylum Nematode (roundworms) feeding

Nematodes are the first organisms to have a digestive system with a mouth and an anus!!

Most nematodes are free living (carnivores or decomposers)

Some are internal parasites

Phylum Nematode (roundworms) Respiration, Circulation, Excretion

Due to their small size they rely on diffusion of gasses and wastes through their body wall

Phylum Nematode (roundworms) Response

Simple nervous system consisting of several ganglia (groups of neurons), but no brain

Phylum Nematode (roundworms) Movement

Longitudinal muscles as well as a pseudocoelom filled with fluid acts as a hydrostatic skeleton

Contraction of the muscles allows movement

Phylum Nematode (roundworms) Reproduction

All Sexual

Most have separate sexes

Internal Fertilization

There are many species of nematodes that are human parasites. E.g. :

There are many species of nematodes that are human parasites. E.g. :

Phylum Nematode (roundworms) Trichinosis

Adults live and mate in intestinesLarvae burrow into muscles of host and form painful cystsAnother animal eats the host and the cysts hatch

Phylum Nematode (roundworms) Filarial

Transmitted from 1 host to another by biting insects (mosquitoes)Live in the blood and lymphatic systemCan cause elephantiasis

Phylum Nematode (roundworms) Ascarid

Human ingests fecal contaminated food or water

Eggs travel to intestine and hatch

Larvae burrow into blood stream and travel to lungs

Larvae coughed up and swallowed back into stomach and intestines

Larvae are now adults, reproduce and release eggs into feces

Ascarid worms absorbs the nutrients from the host

Phylum Nematode (roundworms) Hookworms

Eggs hatch in soil

Larvae burrow into host in-between their toes

Travel through the blood to the lungs and are swallowed into the intestines

They latch into the walls of the intestine and feed on blood

Phylum Annelida

Annelids are segmented worms with a true coelom

The individual segments are separated internally by walls called septa

All segments (except for near the head) are identical

Each segment has its own set of external appendages called setae

Phylum Annelida Feeding

Can be carnivores, decomposers, or filter feeders

Have pharynx that have specialized feeding structures

Food moves through the esophagus then a crop (storage) and a gizzard (grinding)

Nutrients are absorbed into each segment through the intestine

Waste is removed out the anus

Phylum Annelida Circulation

Closed circulatory system (blood never leaves a vessel)

Blood moves towards the head in the dorsal blood vessel

A set of 5 pairs of ring vessels acts as a heart to pump blood

Ventral blood vessel carries blood towards rear of worm

Phylum Annelida Respiration

Aquatic annelids have gills

Terrestrial annelids require moist skin to allow transport across it

Phylum Annelida Excretion

Each segment has a pair of nephridia that removes wastes

Phylum Annelida Response

Cephalized (brain and sense organs at anterior)

Ventral nerve cord runs down length of worm

Phylum Annelida Movement

Hydrostatic Skeleton

Setae evolve to aid movement

Phylum Annelida Reproduction

Sexual (separate sexes and hermaphrodites)

External fertilization

Phylum Annelida Class Oligochaetes

Mostly terrestrial or freshwater

Relatively small or reduced number of setae

Include earthworms

Phylum Annelida Class Polychaetes

Mostly marine

Many more setae that have evolved into paddle like structures

Phylum Annelida Class Hirudinea


External Parasites

Phylum Mollusca

Molluscs are soft bodied animals that have a free swimming trochophore larvae stage

Phylum Mollusca, Four Body Parts

Muscular foot: locomotion

Visceral mass: internal organs

Mantle: thin layer of tissue that covers body

Shell: may or may not be present

Phylum Mollusca, Feeding

Snails have a rasp like tongue called a radula to scrape

Octopi have a beak for ripping and tearing

Clams have a siphon that draws water in to be filtered

Phylum Mollusca, Respiration

Aquatic Molluscs have gills inside the mantle cavity

Terrestrial Molluscs maintain a moist mantle to exchange gases

Phylum Mollusca, Circulation

Snails and clams have an open system (blood flows through a few vessels and a heart, but also leaves a vessel and is free to slosh around the body cavity)

Octopi have a closed system as it is more efficient

Phylum Mollusca, Excretion

Nephridia release waste outside body

Phylum Mollusca, Response

Clams do not have brain or complex nervous system

Snails have a simple brain and senses

Octopi have well developed brain and senses

Phylum Mollusca, Movement

Clams dig with their foot

Snails glide on mucus and muscular contractions of the foot

Octopi have their foot divided into tentacles as well as can shoot water out of their siphon

Phylum Mollusca, Reproduction

Many different strategies

- separate sexes or hermaphrodites

- simple molluscs tend to externally fertilize

- higher molluscs can internally fertilize

Phylum Mollusca, Class Gastropoda


'Stomach foot'

Single shell or no shell

Move by a single muscular foot

Feed by a radula

E.g. Snails, slugs, and nudibranchs (sea slugs)

Phylum Mollusca, Class Bivalvia


Two Shells

Filter Feed through siphon

Two large adductor muscles to close shell

Use foot to dig in sediment

Can produce sticky threads to attach to solid surfaces

E.g. clams, oysters, mussels

Phylum Mollusca, Class Cephalopoda


"Head Foot"

May have small internal shells or not

Foot divided into tentacles

Feed with a powerful beak

E.g. octopi, squids

All members of Kingdom Animalia are:




Lack cell walls

Kingdom Animalia is the:

Largest Kingdom:

95 percent of species are invertebrates (lack a backbone)

5 percent of species are vertebrates (have a backbone)

All Animals must:


Must ingest food (other organisms) to supply them with molecules for raw materials and energy

Perform Respiration

Must obtain oxygen as a reactant for aerobic cellular respiration

Must get rid of carbon dioxide as a waste product of aerobic cellular respiration

Perform Circulation

Many large animals require a delivery system for nutrients and wastes

Small animals can rely on simple diffusion

Perform Excretion

Must be able to get rid of metabolic wastes

These are usually nitrogenous compounds (urea, ammonia)

Must Respond to Environment

Must be able to detect stimuli in the environment and respond in an appropriate manner


Most animals move at some point in their life (motile)

Some animals do not move at some point of their life (sessile)


Must continue the species by making new members

Can be sexual or asexual

Animals, Cell Specialization

Over time the cells that make up organisms have become more specialized to perform specific functions

Animals, Development

Development refers to the growth of a single celled zygote into a complete organism

The embryo (solid ball of cells) eventually forms a blastula (hollow ball of cells)

The blastula eventually gastrulates, forming a tube through the middle

There are 2 different types of gastrulation

Protostome: size of gastrulation forms the mouth

Deuterstome: size of gastrulation forms the anus

Animals, After gastrulation, 3 types of germ tissues are formed:

Ectoderm: becomes nerves, sense organs, and skin

Mesoderm: becomes muscles, circulatory, reproductive, and excretory systems

Endoderm: becomes the digestive tract and the respiratory system

Animals, Body Symmetry

Early animals have no symmetry

The first type of symmetry we see is radial symmetry (infinite lines of symmetry)

Pentaradial symmetry has 5 lines of symmetry

Bilateral symmetry has only 1 line of symmetry and is the most advanced

This gives creatures an anterior (front), posterior (rear), dorsal (back), and ventral (belly) sides

Bilateral symmetry also allows cephalization:

a concentration of nervous tissues and sense organs at the anterior of the animal

Animals, Body Cavity Formation

Early animals are solid with no body cavity (acoelom)

More advanced animals have a tube (pseudocoelom)

The most advanced animals have the inner tube suspended within the outer tube (coelom)

Phylum Porifera (Sponges)

Sponges are asymmetrical sessile filter feeders with only a few specialized structures

They consist of a body wall with pores, a central cavity, and an osculum to allow water out

Within the body walls, there are a few specialized cells:

Epidermal cells cover the outside of the sponge

Pore cells allow water to flow through the body wall

Choanocytes are flagellated cells that create the water flow

Archaeocytes are amoeba like cells that wander through the sponge and distribute nutrients and make spicules (protein skeleton of the sponge)

Phylum Porifera (Sponges), Characteristics of Life

Feeding, respiration, circulation, and excretion are all accomplished by the water flow through the body wall and out the osculum

Sponges have no nervous system and so there is very little response to the environment (some sponges do produce a toxin)

Phylum Porifera (Sponges), Reproduction

Sponges can reproduce asexually or sexually

Asexually- a new sponge buds off the parent or by releasing gemmules (archaeocytes covered in spicules into the water)

Sexually- sperm are released into the water and fertilization occurs in the body wall of the sponge (internal fertilization). The zygote grows into a free swimming larvae that settles in a new location.