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22 Cards in this Set

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Structurally, bones can be divided into what categories?


Based on what?

4 major categories based on shape


- Long bones


- Short bones


- Flat bones


- Irregular bones


-Sesamoid dones: a type of irregular bone

Describe long bones and give examples


- long (have a longitudinal axis to them). This longitudinal axis is the shaft of the bone. At the end of each shaft of a long bone is an expanded portion that forms a joint (articulates) with another bone.



- Examples: humerus, femur, radius, ulna, tibia, fibula, metacarpals, metatarsals and phalanges.

Describe short bones and give examples

short bones are short (they are approximately as wide as they are long and they are often described as cube shaped)



- Examples are the carpals of the wrist; tarsal bones of the ankle region


- the calcaneus is an exception; it is considered to be an irregular bone.

Describe flat bones and give examples

Flats bones are flat; broad and thin, with either a flap or perhaps a curved surface.



- Examples are ribs, sternum, cranial bones of the skull and scapula

Describe irregular bones and give examples

irregular bones do not fit neatly in any or the other categories; oddly shaped.


- Examples are vertebrae of the spine, facial bones of the skull, and sesamoid bones



-sesamoid bones are shaped like a sesame seed (IOW they are round). sesamoid bones are also known as round bones.


- the only two sesmoid bones that are consistently found in all people are the two patellae.

What is the typical number of bones in the human skeleton

206 usually. Bones that are in excess of the 206 are called supernumerary bones.

what are Wormian bones

small bones that are sometimes found in the suture joints between cranial bones of the skull.

What are the parts of a long bone

- Diaphysis


- Epiphysis


- Articular Cartilage


- Periosteum


- Medullary Cavity


- Endosteum


- Other components of a bone: arteries, veins, nerve cells/sensory neurons

Decribe the Diaphysis. What is the purpose/function?

- the diaphysis is the shaft of a long bone; its shape is that of a hollow cylindric tube


- the purpose is to be a rigid tube that can with stand strong forces without bending or breaking; without being excessively heavy


- composed of compact bone tissue with a thin layer of spongy bone tissuelinin its inside surface.


- medullary cavity is at the center of the diaphysis and contains the bone marrow.

Decribe the Epiphysis. What is the purpose/function?

(plural: epiphyses)


- the expanded end of a long bone found at each end of the diaphysis.


- each long bone has 2


- purpose is to articulate (form a joint) with another bone


- by expanding the epiphysis widens out, allowing for a larger joint surface, thus increasing stability of the joint.


- composed of spongy bone with a thin layer of compact bone tissue around the periphery


- the spaces of spongy bone within the epiphysis contain red marrow


- the articular surface of the epiphysis is covered with articular cartilage.

Decribe the articular cartlige. What is the purpose/function?

- articular cartlige covers the articular surfaces (i.e. joint surfaces) of a bone.


- softer tissue than bone


- purpose is to provide cushioning and shock absorption for the joint.


- composed of hyaline cartilage


- has poor blood supply and therefore does not heal well after being damaged.

Decribe the Periosteum. What is the purpose/function?

-surrounds the entire bones, except for the articular surfaces which are covered with articular cartlige


-thin dense fibrous membrane


- provides a site of attachment for tendons of muscles and ligaments


- the periosteum of the bone is highly innervated with nerve fibers and very pain sensitive when bruised.


- Purpose: fibers of tendon and ligaments interlace into the periosteal fibers of bone, thereby firmly anchoring the tendons and ligaments to the bone.


- Purpose: houses cells that are important in forming and repairing bone tissue.


- Purpose: houses the blood vessels that provide vascular supply to the bone.

Decribe the Medullary Cavity. What is the purpose/function?

- tubelike cavity located within the diaphysis of a long bone


- houses a soft tissue known as bone marrow (red marrow and/or yellow bone marrow)

Decribe the Endosteum. What is the purpose/function?

- a thin membrane that lines the inner surface of the bone within the medullary cavity


- contains cell that are important in forming and repairing bones (similar to periosteum)

What are the functions of bones?

- 5 functions


- the first two are most important for bodyworkers, trainers and students of kinesiology


1. structural support for the body


2. Provide levers for body movements


3. Protection of underlying structures


4. Blood cell formation (Hematopoiesis)


5. Storage reservoir for calcium

What is hematopoiesis?

the process of blood cell production

What is the soft connective tissue that makes blood cells?

Red bone marrow



Red bone marrow produces all types of blood cells: red blood cells, white blood cells and platelets

Why is calcium critical to the functioning of the human body?

- this mineral is necessary for the conduction of impulses in the nervous system, the contraction of muscles, and the clotting of blood.

What is the parathyroid hormone responsible for?

- withdrawing calcium from the bones

What is calcitonin responsible for? where is it produced?

- from the thyroid gland


- responsible for depositing calcium back into the bones.

what are the bone cells that cause the release of calcium from the bones into the bloodstream?

Osteoclast

what are the types of bone cells that cause the deposition of calcium from the bloodstream back into bones?

Osteoblast