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103 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back

1) Ventilation

2) External Respiration

3) Internal Respiration

1) movement of air in and out of lungs

2) gas exchange between air in lungs and blood

3) gas exchange between blood and tissues

What 3 areas compose the upper respiratory tract?

Nasal cavity, pharynx, larynx

What 3 areas compose the lower respiratory tract?

Treachea, Bronchi, Lungs

What 3 structures divide the nasal cavity?

3 Concha (superior, middle, inferior)

What is the naris?

The nostril.

What palate separates the oral cavity from the nasal cavity?

Hard palate.

What is the function of the concha?

1) Create turbulent flow to circulate air

2) Increase surface area w/in nasal cavity

What are the nasal meatus? What are they created by?

Tunnels where air moves through.

Created by the concha.

What are the two paranasal sinuses?

Frontal and sphenoidal.

What structure creates the top of the nasal sinus?

Cribiform plate.

What is the name of the structure separating the two nostrils?


What is the vesibule made of?

Stratified Squamous epithelium.

What are the 2 functions of the paranasal sinuses?

1) Lighten skull

2) Resonate speech

What are the 3 sections of the pharynx?




What is the common passageways for food and air?

Oropharynx and laryngopharynx

What is the fauces?

Space separating the oral cavity from the oropharynx.

What feature separates the oropharynx from the laryngopharynx?


Where does the laryngopharynx end?


What type of cells are found in the nasopharynx?

Pseudostratified ciliated columnar.

What type of cells are found in the oropharynx and laryngopharynx?

stratified squamous.

How many pieces of cartilage make up the larynx?

How many are paired?


9 total.

6 paired, 3 unpaired.

What is another name for the larynx?

Voice box.

What is the largest piece of cartilage? What is it's function?


Moves down while swallowing to prevent food from entering the windpipe.

What is another name for the vestibular folds?

False vocal folds.

What are the 3 unpaired cartilages of the larynx?

Epiglottis, Thyroid cartilage, Cricoid cartilage

What cartilage is commonly known as the Adams Apple?

Thyroid cartilage.

What connects the 6 paired cartilages?

Smooth muscle and ligaments.

What is the function of the soft palate?

Stops fluids or food from going up nose while swallowing

What is the glottis?

The area that seperates the larynx from the laryngopharynx.

What are the 3 paired cartilages of the larynx?

Arytenoid, Corniculate, Cuneiform

What two structures are the vocal folds connected to?

Thyroid cartilage and arytenoid cartilage

When are the arytenoid cartilages abducted? Adducted?

Abducted to allow air through (move vocal folds out of the way)

Adducted to position for speaking

How is tension increased in vocal folds.

What effect does this have?

Skeletal muscle adducts arytenoid cartilage.

Increasing tension increases pitch

What vertebrae does the larynx extend to?


What type of cartilage are the C-shaped rings of the trachea made of?


What is the portion of the trachea that splits into the primary bronchus called?


Where is the cough reflex caused?

Carina, b/c extremely sensitve

What type of cells is the trachea epithelium?

Pseudostratified Ciliated Columnar

What is the the function of cilia in the trachea?

Move particles out of trachea

What is the pathway from Trachea to the Alveoli?

9 steps.

Trachea --> Carina --> Primary Bronchi --> Lobar Bronchi --> Segmental Bronchi --> Bronchiole --> Terminal Bronchiole --> Respiratory Bronchiole --> Alveoli

What happens to the ratio of cartilage to smooth muscle as you move towards the alveoli?

Cartilage decreases, smooth muscle increases.

What is the function of the elastic fibers in the smooth muscle?

Allow for recoil after filling with air

What cell type is the alveolar epithelium?

Thin, simple squamous

Describe the pathway between alvoeli to capillary (Respiratory Membrane)

Alveolar fluid > Alveolar Epithelium > Basement membrane > Interstitial space > Basement membrane > Capillary endothelium

What is the function of wandering macrophages in the alveoli?

Remove dust or debris brought in by air

What is the function of a type II pneumocyte?

Secrete alveolar fluid.

What is the space for the heart called in the left lung?

The cardiac notch.

What is the area where bronchi and vessels enter the lung called?


What is Boyles Law?

Pressure is inversely related to volume

What does contraction of the diaphragm cause?

Increase in lung volume

When is alveolar pressure negative?

During inspiration.

What is atmospheric pressure, in atm and mm Hg?

1 atm or 760 mm Hg

How do you change lung size?

Change size of the thoracic cavity

Describe normal inhalation in terms of structures and movement.

How does this change when forced?

Diaphragm contracts and External intercostals lift ribs upwards.

In forced inspiration the scalenes, sternocleidomastoid and pectoralis minor help raise chest.

Describe normal exhalation in terms of structures and movement.

How does this change when forced?

Passive process, caused by relaxation of diaphragm and external intercostals and elastic recoil of alveoli.

Forced expiration uses abdominals to push diaphragm up, and internal intercostals and transverse thoracis to pull the ribs down.

What is alveolar fluid?

Where does it come from?

Surfactant produced by Type II pneumocytes

What is surfactant mixed with and why?

Water, to reduce surface tension from being too high.

What happens if the surface tension on alveoli is too high?

They collapse

What is the role of surfactant in ventilation?

Surface tension created during inhalation prevents alveoli from expanding too much and breaking.

Also accounts for 2/3rds of elastic recoil during exhalation.

What happens in premature babies if there are no type II pneumocytes?

No surfactant produced, surface tension is too high.

Makes it hard to breath

What is compliance of lungs?

How much effort is required to stretch lungs and chest wall.

What two factors control compliance?

Elasticity and Surface tension.

What is the effect of pulmonary fibrosis on compliance?

Reduces amount of elastic tissues, make lungs less compliant.

What is the effect of the ANS on breathing?

SNS - relax smooth muscle, dilate bronchioles, increase R

PSNS - contract smooth muscle, contract bronchioles, increase R

How do the bronchioles change during normal ventilation?

Dilate (reduce resistance) during inhalation, contract (increase resistance) during expiration

What is Tidal Volume?

Amount of air inspired and expired, normally 500 mL

What is the Inspiratory reserve volume?

Maximum amount that can be inspired past normal inspiration, typically 3000 mL

What is Expiratory Reserve Volume?

Amount that can be forcefully expired after normal expiration, typically 100 mL

What is residual volume?

The volume still remaining in the lungs and respiratory passages after maximum expiration.

What is Inspiratory capacity?

Sum of Tidal Volume and Inspiratory Reserve Volume

What is Functional Residual Capacity?

Expiratory Reserve Capacity + Residual Volume

What is Vital Capacity?

IRV + ERV + Tidal Volume

What is Total Lung Capacity?


What is minute ventilation?

Tidal volume x respiratory rate

What is anatomic dead space?

Space in the respiratory tract where gas exchange cannot occur.

From Nasal Cavity to Terminal Bronchioles.

What is the Alveolar Ventilation?

Volume of air available for gas exchange per min.

(Tidal volume - dead space volume) x RR

What is Dalton's Law?

Total Pressure is the sum of the partial pressures.

What is Henry's Law?

[Gas] = Partial pressure x solubility coefficient

What four factors is gas diffusion through a respiratory membrane reliant on?

1) Membrane thickness

2) Diffusion coefficient of gas

3) Surface area

4) Partial Pressure differences

How do partial pressure differences work?

Gas moves from areas of high partial pressure to areas of low partial pressures

What is the diffusion coefficient of gas?

How easily a gase is able to diffuse through a membrane.

How does CO2 and O2 compare in terms of diffusion coefficient.

CO2 is 20x more diffusable than O2.

Order the following gases in terms of partial pressures in atmosphere:





N2 > O2 > H2O > CO2

What is more soluble CO2 or O2? O2 or N2?

CO2 > O2

O2 > N2

What is the partial pressure of Oxygen when inspired?

a) 160 mm Hg

b) 200 mm Hg

c) 130 mm Hg

a) 160 mm Hg

What happens to the partial pressure of oxygen in alveolar air? Why?

Decreases to 104 mmHg, O2 is lost to blood and H2O and CO2 are added from blood

What happens to partial pressure of blood as it enters PO2 in pulmonary veins? Why?

Decreases to 95 mmHg. Mixes w/ deoxygenated blood from bronchial veins.

How many oxygen molecules is hemoglobin able to carry?


What is the shape fo the oxygen-hemoglobin curve?


What does a shift to the right in the oxygen-hemoglobin curve indicate?

Shift to the right means that hemoglobin has a lowered affinity for oxygen. At the same pressure, less oxygen will bind to hemoglobin than before.

How does pH affect the oxygen-hemoglobin curve?



Lower pH shifts curve to right

Lower CO2 shifts curve to the left.

Lower Temperature shifts curve to the left.

Why is a lower blood pH and higher temperature during exercise good?

Both shift the curve to the right, and mean more oxygen will be unloaded, which is needed at active skeletal muscle.

How does CO2 affect pH, and subsequently, oxygen-hemoglobin affinity.

CO2 is converted to bicarbonate, causing free H+ to come from H2O, lowering pH.

Shift curve to right.

What is BPG, and what is it's effect on hemoglobin?


Reduces hemoglobin's ability to bind to oxygen.

What are the 3 cerebral structures controlling respiration, and what does each do?

1) Pontine Respiratory Group

- slow/stop respiration

2) Dorsal Respiratory Group

- stimulates diaphragm

3) Ventral Respiratory Group

- stimulates intercostal (external and internal)

What nerve stimulates the diaphragm?

Phrenic Nerve

What nerve stimulates the intercostal muscles?

Intercostal nerve.

What do the Dorsal Respiratory Group and Ventral Respiratory Group combine to form?

The Medullary Respiratory Center

How does inspiration start?

Medullary Respiratory Center neurons spontaneously start basic rhythm

How is inspiration increased?

Increased motor neuron activation

How is inspiration slowed/stopped?

Medullary Respiratory Center recieves feedback from Pontine Group, sends inhibatory signals to relax respiratory muscles

What is the Hering-Breuer reflex?

Stretch receptors in lungs

What are proprioreceptors, and what do they let the brain know?

Found in muscles and joints, inform brain if muscles and joints are moving, which means they'll need more oxygen.
Increase respiration.