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83 Cards in this Set

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What distinguishes the behaviour of the deterioirators from the persisters?

Their cognitions

What is mastery oriented and learned helplessness in the Dweck and Resspucci Study

Mastery oriented- attributions that imply their mistakes are reversible




Learned helplessness- imlied that losing is inevitable and they can do nothing to succeed

What's the difference between Functional attributions and dysfunctional attributions

FA- performance caused by controllable and unstable factors (Lack of effort)




DA- Performance caused by an uncontrollable and stable factors





What can attribution intervention alter the impact of losing much more so than_______?

Prior level of proficiancy




history of winning

What do implications do?

Teach individuals how to deal with losing by altering aversive attribution patterns

What happened to 11 and 12 year olds who were retrained to focuson strategy attributions for failure

1. Reported more perceived success





2. Made more internal and controllable attributions for success

Basketballdribbling- university recreational basketball playersRettraining failure to controllable and unstablefactos (effort resulted in :

1. Improvement of dribbling


2. Increase in productive attribution

IN tennis players:

Retraining failure to controllable and unstable factors resulted in

1. Grater expectations for future success



2. More positive emotions

rudisill and singer balance test

basically said that COntrollable unstable factors persisted longer and increased performance vs. the uncontrollable stable factors.

Wlaking seniors example

Attributed being active to modifiable factors rather then old age= increase in distance walked

Rehab outcomes

Those who received Attributional Retraining - more self confidence




Control groups: no change


Prof quality , test difficulty, strategy , effort...

Those who retrained did better on test




Those whi did no training - same scores

What are the points to consider whilst looking at attribution?

1. An individual must know how to act on the attribution




2. Point of attributional retraining- to keep individuals from attributing their losing to a lack of ability and giving up as a result




3. Attributional style-personality variable that reflects how people typically explain outcomes.

Which of the following is the most correct statement about learned helplessness ?



a. It appears more in children then adultsb. It is a competeance problem , not a control problemc. It implies that mistakes are revesile with hard work d. It is a control problem, not a competence problem

c. It is a control problem, not a competence problem

What is transtheoretical model?

Precomtemplation




Contemplation




Preparation




Action




Maintenance

What is precontemplation in TTM?


And the characteristics of it

Ready to not take action, no intetion of starting to take action in next 6 months




3 characteristics=


1. uniformed


2. demoralized


3. denial

Contemplation in ttm?

Thinking about taking action in the next 6 months

Preparation in TTM?

Getting ready to take action , intend to start in the next 30 days , like find a trainer and buy shoes and all that

Action in TTM?

Behaviuor change is recently strted , been doing it for less then 6 months

Maintenance in TTM

Behaviour has been changed for less the 6 months

What is self efficacy and what is the exercise barrier in self efficacy?

1- being not confident 5- being very confident




Exercise barriers : When you stressed when your tired, when you dont have a work out buddy

What is the decisional balance ?

Pros and cons of something like that would sway your decision




Pros of exercise: Better sleep more energy more productivity




Cons of exercise : takes time could get injured and equioment cost money

What is the difference between Experinential proceses and behavioural stages?

Experiential- individuals awareness of themselves and their exercise




Behavioural- Behaviours undertaken to change aspects of the environment that may affect being active

WHat is a down fall of TTM?

It cannot reliably predict which stage an individual will move to and when

What is theory of planned behaviour?

The theory states that attitude toward behavior, subjective norms, and perceived behavioral control, together shape an individual's behavioral intentions and behaviors

Whether a person intends on doing somethingdepends on 3 main factors what are they?

1. Attitude- weather the person is in favour of it




2. Subjective norms how much social pressure the person feels to do it




3. PBC- perciveed control over performance of a behaviour

What is some application of the Theory of planned behaviour?

Educate- to imporve attitude by increaseing knowledege of benefits




Norm- make the activity a norm




-PBC -provide skills to deal with barriers

What is social cognitive theory?

individual's knowledge acquisition can be directly related to observing others within the context of social interactions, experiences, and outside media influences

What are the factors in Bandura's Reciprocal determinism

Behavioural- what type of sport




Personal - how much do you like to sport




Environmental- can you get to the games/practices

What is the core of self confidence?

Self efficacy beliefs,

What is self efficacy?

Situation specific confidence , the belief that you can execute the actions required for a situation

What are the 4 stages of Self Efficacy?

Past experiences


Vicarious experiences


Social persuasion


Physiological and affective states

WHat are Past experiences in SE

pervious performance affects ones beleifs of capability

What are Vicarious experiences in SE

Comparing to other who have similar skills

What is social persuasion in SE?

Self talk and encouragement from others

WHat is Physiological and affective states in SE

Physical and emotional cues associated with different performances

WHat has SE been positively linked to?

Sport performance


-exercise adherance


-energy expenditure

ACHEIVMENT GOAL THEORY- what are the 2 ways that one defines success in an achievement task

Task goal orientation- Referencing past experiences as origin of competence feeling (Emphasize mastery)




Ego goal orientation- comparing with others to gain social status (Emphasize wining)

When do kids stop being task oriented?

when they can differentiate between ability and effort

What are the 3 factors task goals are associated with ? On the Task ego orientation in sport questionnaire

1.Increase self efficacy


2. Increase enjoyment


3. Increase future success

What are the 2 factors associated with Ego orientation On the Task ego orientation in sport questionnaire?

1. avoiding practice and preferring to simply compete




2. Ego= best predictor of a negative youth experience

What should teacher try to implement more task orientation or ego orientation

Task orientation

What is cognitive evaluation theory?

Explains the effects of social context on an individuals intrinsic motivation

How does social environment effect IM?

- One study showed the intrinsic interest in an activity may be decreased by inducing an individual to engage in an activity to obtain some extrinsic goal

What happens during an event that influences ones competence?

It will ultimately effect IM

What are the 2 things that events capable of influencing IM possess?




SEE PAGE 23 for more help

Controlling and informational aspects

What are some study that showed External reward negatively influence IM?

Scholarship fooball players reported lower IM then those not on scholarship

What are some feedback form coaches that resulted in IM increase?

Increase positive information


Decrease negative/ punishment feeback


Increased dictator behaviour


Decreased democratic behaviour

What are some limitations to Cognitive evaluation theory?

applies only to tasks that are highly interesting




does not account for relatedness which is a psychological need

What is organismic integration theory?

Explains the motivation of non-intrinsically motivating behaviours on the basis of 3 psychological needs

What are the 3 psychological needs of OIT

Autonomy: Choices and control over own behaviour


Competence: handling challenges and achieving desired outcomes



relatedness: socially connecting and feeling involved

What are the 6 basic categories of OIT

1. Amotivation- no motivation




2. External regulation- least self determined "My parents are making me"




3. Interjected regulation-avoiding negative emotions "I don't want to let other down by quitting"




4. Identified regulation- choice linked with goals "Off season training will help me become better athlete"




5. Integrated regulation- Behaviour consistent with identity " make the olympic team to solidify myself as an athlete




6. Intrinsic- most self determined, " I love the sport"

What are the various measures that have been deveopled for OIT

Sport , PE, Exercise

What are the 3 intrinsic measures

IM to know-


IM toward accomplishment- mastery


IM to seek stimulation -exictment

What are the 3 extrinsic measures?

1. integrated -


2. Introjection- pressures to avoid negative emotions


3. Identification- behaviour linked to valued goals

More self determined forms of motivation have been associated with_____ ( 3 things) in youth sport

Increase persistance in organized youth sport




decrease drop out




increase intention to return

What happend when coaches introduced autonomy in sport?

Increase athlete self determination


- Increased athlete engagement

What happend when they had autonomy in rehab?

increase return form injury




- no pressure to return

Look at the rest of the OIT on Lecture 13 pls

for sum fun

What is arousal?

A blend of pshycho and phisio activation of an individuals autonomic nervous system




Neither pleasant or unpleasant

What are the 5 characteristics of anxiety?

1. Elicited following an appraisal

2. Universal across people of all cultures


3. Has a distict physiology


4. Associated with unique set of action tendencies to get angry, to mock , eat , ETC


5. Observed though deiscrete facial expression

Whats the difference between Cognitive anxiety and Somatic anxiety?

Cog- athletes concerns that reduce ability to focus




Somatic- physiological elements that develop directly from autonomic arousal

Wha is the difference between State Anxiety vs. trait anxiety

- State anxiety: associated with worries and apprehension at any given moment (A- State), may change form moment to moment -



Trait anxiety: A stable part of personality (A-trait), Predisposes individual to perceive situations as physically or psychologically threatening

What is social anxiety?

Occurs during social situations. EX public speaking

What is social physique anxiety? (SPA)

Experiencing anxiety due to evaluations of physique

What is competitive trait anxiety?

Associated with sport or competition concerns about body performance and skill

What does more anxiety mean?

Intensity of symptoms




Frequency of cognitive intrusions




directional interpretation of symptoms
(either positive or negative)

look at general vs. specific anxiety

on lecture

What are the 5 personal sources of Anxiety?

1. Experience skill level




2. gender




3. trait anxiety




4.Self confidence and self presentational beliefs




5. Self regulation strats

Define experience and skill level in 5 sources of Anxiety

no differences in experience


There are differences in direction (skilled=facilitative, unskilled=harmful)

Define differences in gender in 5 sources of Anxiety

Females experience higher social physique in exercise settings

Define Trait anxiety in in 5 sources of Anxiety

Traits influence level of state anxiety




- One size doesn't fit all




Stress is based on the person not the situation

Define self confidence and self presentational beleifs in 5 sources of Anxiety

beliefs about body and capability are sources of anxiety

Define self regulation strategies in 5 sources of Anxiety

Coping skils(SELF TALK)




don't set self handicapping behaviours

What is the MAT (multi- dimensional anxiety theory)

Has multiple dimensions like sport performance and anxiety, or somatic cognitive





As worry and apprehension increase what decreases?

Sport performance

What is zones of optimal functioning?

Optimal state of anxiety that veries with individuals




Zoned athletes have better performances then those out of zone

What are 3 things that are important while looking at sport-anxiety theory

1.relationship between anxiety and performance differs between athletes




2. anxiety isn't always detremental to sport




3. everyone is different

What is the cusp catastrophe theory?

- Describes combined influences of cognitive state anxiety and physiological arousal



Recognizes anxiety/ athletic performance is complex

What are the 5 predictions of woodman and hardy in CUSP catastrophe theory

1. When cognitive state anxiety is low, the relationship between physiological arousal and performance is an inverted U-shape



2. When physiological arousal is low , elevations in cognitive state anxiety are associated with enhanced performance relative to the baseline






3. When physiological arousal is high, elevations in cognitive state anxiety are associated with performance declines




4. When cognitive state anxiety is high the effects of elevations in physiological arousal can be positive or negative for performance




5. When physiological arousal is moderately high and cognitive state anxiety is high, it predicts a dramatic performance drop, a catastrophe will occur

When catastrophe not occur?

With low cognitive state anxiety

What are the 2 underlying mechanisms of Anxiety performance relationship?

COGNITIVE




physiological

What are the 3 attentional anxiety problems?

1Amount -high anxiety= can't attend to large amounts of info




2.type- high anxious athletes attend to task irrelevant info




3. control- paralyis by analysis you loose control