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61 Cards in this Set

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Self-in-relation therapy is an approach to:
feminist therapy that emphasizes the role of the mother-son versus mother-daughter relationship in creating gender differences in behavior

self-in-relation theory extends the objects relations approach by considering the impact of same versus opposite gender in caregiver-infant relationships on development, especially on development of the relational self.
Tom J. was involved in a car accident in which he received extensive head trauma. Since the accident, Tom's movements are jerky and uncoordinated, and he is unable to walk across the room unaided. Tom most likely suffered damage to the:

The cerebellum is located at the rear of the brain stem and is involved in the coordination of voluntary movements of the skeletal muscles and the regulation of balance.
Damage to the parietal lobes is associated with
aphasia, visual deficits, and somatosensory disturbances.
The temporal lobes are involved in and damage causes:
The temporal lobes are involved in auditory and visual processing, and damage is associated with visual deficits and memory loss.
Which of the following theories would predict that job enrichment would have a detrimental effect on job performance:
scientific management

According to scientific management theory, workers are motivated only by external rewards (especially pay), not the intrinsic factors that are provided by job enrichment.
One approach to distinguishing between depression and anxiety involves considering three dimensions of emotion -- negative affect, positive affect, and autonomic arousal. From this perspective, compared to depression, anxiety involves:
a similar level of negative affect but a higher level of both autonomic arousal and positive affect
Symptoms during the early stages of Alzheimer's disease have been most closely linked to which type of neuron:

Loss of cholinergic cells (cells that secrete ACh) is evident during the early stages of the disorder, especially in the hippocampus and cortex.
A diagnosis of Undifferentiated Somatoform Disorder requires which of the following:
at least one physical complaint

The diagnosis of Undifferentiated Somatoform Disorder requires the presence of at least one physical complaint (often chronic fatigue, loss of appetite, or a gastrointestinal or genitourinary disturbance) that cannot be fully explained by a known medical condition and that has persisted for at least six months.
Approximately _____ of women experience moderate to severe postpartum depression that persists for weeks:
10 to 15%

The estimates vary from expert to expert, but, in general, most report that 10 to 15 or 20 percent of women experience persistent moderate to severe Major Depression.
The clinical course of AIDS dementia complex (ADC) is described in the literature in terms of six stages. For example, a person with AIDS who has unequivocal evidence of functional, intellectual, or motor impairment but is able to perform all but the most demanding aspects of activities of daily living and can walk without assistance is in which of the following stages:
Stage 1 (mild)

A person in Stage 2 cannot work or perform demanding activities of daily living and may require assistance when walking.

A person in Stage 3 has significant intellectual impairments and cannot walk unassisted.
Professor Sharp argues against raising the legal drinking age from 18 to 21 on the ground that doing so will only encourage 18-, 19-, and 20-year olds to drink. Apparently, Sharp is familiar with which of the following theories:
psychological reactance

Sharp's argument is most consistent with the predictions of psychological reactance theory, which proposes that, when people feel their freedom is being threatened, they will do something to restore that freedom (e.g., engage in the legally-prohibited behavior).
Precocious puberty, or the development of secondary sex characteristics prior to age 8 in girls and 8.5 in boys, has been linked to premature awakening of the:
hypothalamic-pituitary axis

The hypothalamic-pituitary axis is also known as the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis and is involved in sexual maturation.

The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis is involved in stress and anxiety.

The hippocampal-anterior thalamic axis is involved in memory (especially episodic memory).

The mesocorticolimbic-dopaminergic system is the brain's "reward pathway" and mediates the reinforcing effects of drugs.
You are starting a new program for children of recently divorced parents. You tell the editor of the local newspaper (who has just divorced her husband) that her two children can attend the program for free if she puts an article about the program in the paper. According to the Ethics Code, this is:
unethical because the Code prohibits psychologists from compensating a newspaper employee for publicity in a news item
In Ridley's (1984) explanation of the distrust that often exists between African-American clients and their therapists, the therapist's ethnicity is the most important factor for:
a confluent paranoiac

A confluent paranoiac exhibits high cultural and functional paranoia, and his or her nondisclosure in therapy is due to a combination of pathology and the effects of racism. According to Ridley, these clients do better with a therapist of the same racial/ethnic group.

A cultural paranoiac does not possess views as extreme as a confluent paranoiac.
"In periods of crisis, such as loss, abandonment, separation, failure, and loneliness, the individual can temporarily fall back on his internal world." This statement reflects the basic assumptions of which of the following approaches:
object relations therapy

Kernberg's work "represents an early psychoanalytic mainstream version of an object relations theory and self psychology" [D. Wolitzky and M. Eagle, Psychoanalytic theories of psychotherapy, in P. L. Wachtel and S. B. Messer (eds.), Theories of Psychotherapy: Origins and Evolution, Washington, DC: American Psychological Association, 1997]. Kernberg's statement reflects the object relations view that early social relations impact future social situations.
A researcher interested in short-term memory shows subjects a list of five letters ("C-S-J-Z-M") and asks them to memorize the list. She then instructs subjects to count backwards by 3's from 99. After six seconds, 12 seconds, and 18 seconds, the researcher asks subjects to recall the list. The reason why subjects are instructed to count backwards is:
to keep subjects from rehearsing the list of letters
Following a stroke involving the middle cerebral artery and the right (nondominant) hemisphere, a person is most likely to exhibit:
paralysis on the left side of his body and vision loss in his left visual field

Damage to certain areas of the right hemisphere could cause paralysis on the left side of the body as well as vision loss involving the left visual field.
Research examining the relationship between mild depression and autobiographical memory has found that, in comparison to the memories of people who are nondysphoric, the memories of people who are dysphoric are:
less detailed and more negative

People who are dysphoric are also likely to have autobiographical memories that are less detailed than those of people who are nondysphoric.
__________ used chimpanzees as his research subjects in studies designed to investigate the role of cognition in learning:

Kohler's work with chimpanzees led to his description of insight learning.
Thorndike's research with cats in puzzle boxes led to the formulation of the "law of effect."
Ebbinghaus acted as his own subject in research on forgetting.
Tolman's research with rats led to his identification of "latent learning."
Expressive aphasia is to Broca's area as ____________ aphasia is to Wernicke's area:

Wernicke's aphasia has several names including sensory, receptive, and impressive aphasia.
Parham and Helms (1990) developed an attitude measure of racial identity that assesses four stages of African-American identity development. These stages are:
pre-encounter, encounter, immersion-emersion, and internalization

These are the four stages assessed by the Parham and Helms measure. The final (internalization) stage is characterized by adoption of an African-American worldview.
A police department is going to change the work schedule for its police officers. Rather than work a traditional five-day workweek, it will now allow its officers to work a four-day workweek. The research on a four-day workweek has found that it:
has little effect on productivity and a positive effect on family life

The compressed four-day workweek has little impact on job productivity, but may have beneficial effects at home.
A patient exhibits emotional blunting, social withdrawal, eccentric behavior, and mild loosening of associations. Of the types of Schizophrenia, these symptoms are most suggestive of which of the following:
Residual Type

The Residual Type is marked by an absence of active-phase symptoms at the present time. The symptoms listed in the question are typical of this type of Schizophrenia.
Disorganized Type in Schizophrenia
Disorganized Type is characterized by primitive, disinhibited behaviors and often includes inappropriate emotional responses.
The onset of puberty in humans occurs when certain cells in the __________ secrete gonadotropin-releasing hormones:

Secretion of the gonadotropin-releasing hormones by the hypothalamus stimulates production and release of the gonadotropic hormones by the pituitary gland, which then stimulate the gonads to release the sex hormones.
Research comparing day, swing, and night shifts has found that:
the night shift has the most detrimental impact on health and may be similar to the swing shift in terms of negative consequences for social relations
Studies investigating the relationship between job performance and job satisfaction indicate that:
correlations between job satisfaction and performance are usually positive, although coefficients are usually low
In group therapy, members establish a "taking turns" pattern in which each group session is devoted, sequentially, to each group member. In response to this situation, Yalom recommends:
mass group interpretation
At __________ months of age, infants begin to search for a hidden object but reach for the object in the last place they found it even when they have seen the object moved to another location:
8 to 12

At about eight months of age, children first provide evidence that they know that objects exist when they are out of view. However, they commit the A-not-B error, which continues to about 12 months of age. The behavior described in this question is referred to as the "A-not-B error."
To assess the relationship between the linear combinations of two or more X variables and two or more Y variables, you would use which of the following:
canonical correlation
Discriminant function analysis
is used to assess the relationship between variables when there are multiple X variables and one Y variable that is discrete (categorical).
ANCOVA is used to
assess the effects of an IV on a DV when the effects of an extraneous variable have been statistically removed.
MANOVA is used to
assess the effects of one or more IVs on two or more DVs.
Applicants for a job at the Acme Corporation are very upset by some of the items included in the company's Biographical Information Blank. They feel that the items are not work-related and therefore violate their privacy. Apparently, these items:
lack face validity

Face validity refers to the extent to which a measure appears to measure what it is supposed to measure.
In treating an 8-year old child who doesn't like going to bed at night because he's afraid of the dark, which of the following interventions would probably be most successful:
cognitive self-control

Cognitive self-control involves several steps: At bedtime, the child first relaxes, then visuals a pleasant scene, and then makes self-statements such as "I am brave. I can take care of myself in the dark." This technique is considered a self-control technique since it is administered by the child him/herself (although the parents are also involved in reminding the child to use the technique and in monitoring the child's progress).
Children begin to express shame, embarrassment, pride, and other self-conscious emotions between the ages of:
18 to 24 months

Children begin to exhibit self-conscious emotions at the time the sense of self emerges, which is between 18 and 24 months of age. By 24 months, children exhibit pride by, for example, drawing the attention of parents and others to their successes.
For a test with a mean of 100 and standard deviation of 15, the upper and lower limits of the standard error of measurement are:
0 to 15

When a test’s reliability coefficient is equal to +1.0 (the highest reliability coefficient possible), there is no error in measurement; and the standard error of measurement equals zero. At the other extreme, when the test’s reliability coefficient is equal to 0, the standard error of measurement equals the standard deviation of the test scores.
A drive for order that involves the testing of patterns and structures against the real world is referred to as:

As defined by Piaget, equilibration involves a combination of assimilation and accommodation and is motivated by a drive for balance or order.
Central achromatopsia is caused by bilateral lesions in the occipitotemporal region of the brain and is characterized by an inability to:
For people with central achromatopsia, everything looks grey or "washed out."
central achromatopsia
everything looks grey or "washed out."
To determine if there is a statistically significant pattern in the effect of time on memory for a list of nonsense syllables, you have subjects memorize a list of 15 syllables and then test their memory at 15-minute intervals for the next two hours. The best technique for analyzing the data you have collected is:
trend analysis

Of the techniques listed, only trend analysis (a type of analysis of variance that is used when the IV is quantitative) would be useful for determining if there is a pattern or trend in subjects' memory for the list of nonsense syllables over time.
In DSM-IV-TR, Withdrawal Delirium is associated with:
alcohol; sedatives, hypnotics, and anxiolytics

Of the 11 classes of substances included in DSM, only Alcohol and Sedatives, Hypnotics, or Anxiolytics are associated with Withdrawal Delirium.
Systematic desensitization, a behavioral technique originally developed by Wolpe, is based on which of the following:

Use of counterconditioning to reduce an undesirable behavior is based on the assumption that a response can be eliminated by pairing it with an incompatible response; e.g., pairing anxiety with relaxation. Counterconditioning underlies systematic desensitization and often involves pairing an anxiety response with relaxation.
A pigeon is placed in a cage that has two levers. Lever #1 delivers reinforcement on a VI-30-second schedule, while Lever #2 delivers reinforcement on a VI-60-second schedule. What proportion of the pigeon's pecks will be on Lever #1:

In the situation described in the question, the pigeon will peck the VI-30 key twice as often as the VI-60 key. Put another way, 2/3 of the pigeon's pecks will be on the VI-30 key and the remaining 1/3 will be on the VI-60 key.
When using a concurrent VI schedule, each lever or key delivers reinforcement on a different variable interval schedule. In this situation, the animal matches the relative frequency of its pecks on each key to the relative frequency of reinforcement obtained with that key.
Although stuttering in children is often difficult to treat, there is some evidence that ____________ is the most effective approach.
regulated breathing
A researcher is studying the ability of college students to remember lists of related word pairs (e.g., dog-cat). Prior to studying the to-be-remembered list of word pairs, the experimental group is presented with a list of opposite word pairs such as tall-short. The control group, on the other hand, completes multiplication problems. What results should the researcher expect when the two groups are subsequently asked to recall the word pairs?
due to proactive interference, the experimental group will recall fewer word pairs

For the experimental group, the two tasks are similar, and the first list of word pairs interferes with the ability to learn or recall the second list. This is referred to as proactive interference. For the control group, the two tasks are dissimilar, and there is less interference. Consequently, the control group will remember more words than the experimental group.
Youngsters begin to describe themselves in terms of personality attributes – e.g., “I’m smart,” “I’m friendly,” “I’m shy”:
toward the end of middle childhood (ages 10-12)

Toward the end of middle childhood, a child’s self-concept becomes increasingly based on personality traits. In early childhood, children describe themselves primarily in terms of specific behaviors. At the beginning of middle childhood, children start to describe themselves in terms of their physical competencies – e.g., “I’m good at …”
A structural family therapist's interventions when working with a triangulated family will be designed to:
create stress in order to unbalance the family's homeostasis

Before the family's structure can be altered, its homeostatic state must be unbalanced so that family members are more susceptible to change. This is accomplished by interjecting some type of stress into the family.
You receive a court order requesting that you provide information about a 17-year-old client who is currently the defendant in a court case. You discuss the request with the client but he refuses to sign a waiver of confidentiality. You should:
provide the court with the requested information
Which of the following techniques would be most useful for investigating a person's cognitive processes while working on a complex task:
protocol analysis

Protocol analysis involves having the individual think aloud while solving a problem and then evaluating the protocol (transcript) to clarify the individual's problem-solving process.
Marlatt and Gordon's (1985) relapse prevention model focuses on:
situations antecedent to relapse

According to Marlatt and Gordon, relapse is a failure to maintain a behavior change after treatment and is best avoided by identifying and dealing with its antecedents. (The research has shown that "negative affect" is the most common antecedent of relapse.)
Marlatt and Gordon's approach to the definition and treatment of addictions is classified as a social learning approach that combines behavioral and cognitive principles.
A psychophysicist is measuring "just noticeable differences" while investigating the relationship between changes in the intensity of light and subjects' perceptions of those changes. The measuring scale being used has:
psychologically equal intervals

Psychophysicists use just noticeable differences (JNDs) and similar measurements to study the relationship between changes in physical stimuli and the psychological responses to those changes. JNDs are considered to be equal; however, the corresponding physical stimuli usually are not. For example, it may take only the addition of one pound to notice a difference when you start with ten pounds but the addition of ten pounds to notice a difference when you start with 100 pounds. In each case, the JND is equal to one, but the physical difference in weight is not equal.
An industrial-organizational psychologist will most likely apply the concept of "identical elements" originally proposed by Thorndike and Woodworth (1901) to which of the following:
employee training
Research on the compressed (four-day) workweek suggests that it results in:
increases job satisfaction and supervisor ratings

Baltes and colleagues found that the compressed workweek has positive effects on supervisor ratings of employee performance, employee overall job satisfaction, and employee satisfaction with the work schedule, with the effects being strongest for employee attitudes
Squaring the multiple correlation coefficient (R) provides a measure of:
shared variability

he squared multiple correlation coefficient indicates the amount of variability in the criterion that is shared with the weighted combination of the predictors. The multiple correlation coefficient, like a bivariate correlation coefficient, can be squared to obtain a coefficient of determination.
Meyer’s (2003) minority stress model links mental health problems in lesbian, gay, and bisexual populations to stigma, prejudice, and discrimination. More specifically, the model proposes that the most proximal stressor is:
internalized homophobia
Research by Jerome Kagan has shown that the difference between high- and low-reactive infants is:
due in part to genetic factors
From the perspective of structural family therapy, triangulation, parent-child coalition, and detouring are:
methods of maintaining homeostasis

The function of these three processes is to reduce conflict or stress and thereby maintain the status quo. (Note that Minuchin's use of the term "triangulation" is not too different from the way it was defined by Bowen.)