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35 Cards in this Set

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  • Back


State of mental and physical well being

Communicable disease

A disease which can spread between organisms. Caused by pathogens


Microorganisms which cause disease eg bacteria

Types of pathogens

Bacteria, protists, fungi and viruses

Non communicable disease

Cannot he passed from organism to organism. Last for a long time and often linked to lifestyle factors and genes

Diseases may interact with each other

Sometimes having one diseases can make it more likely that you will suffer from another disease


Very small cells. They make you ill by producing toxins that damage your cells


Not cells. They’re smaller than bacteria and make copies of themselves inside your cells. These cells burst releasing the viruses


These are eukaryotic. Single celled organisms


Some fungi have thread like structures which can grow and pierce human skin and surface of plants. They can also produce pores which can spread to other plants and animals

How do pathogens spread

Water, food, on surfaces, body fluids, animal vectors, soil and air

Non specific defence

Always present to defend against pathogens. Physical - mucus and cilia, skin acts as a barrier, platelets to form blood clots preventing entry of pathogens. Chemical - eyes produce tears which contain lysozyme breaking down bacteria. Saliva contains molecules which kill pathogens entering mouth and stomach acid hydrochloric acid

Microbial defence

Harmless bacteria in gut which the pathogenic bacteria have to compete with


Each cell has a unique molecule on its surface to help identify them as self or foreign

Immune system actions to kill pathogens

Ingest (take in) and digest (break down) using enzymes, some white blood cells produce antibodies which bind to specific antigens disabling the pathogen and making it easier for them to be ingested. Some release enzymes that break down pathogens

Memory cells

Some white blood cells stay around after the pathogen has been dealt with remembering the exact shape of antibody so that in future can fight off the same pathogen quickly.

Reducing spread of disease

Being hygienic, sterilising wounds in the skin, living in sanitary conditions, destroying infected animals, restricting travel, vaccination and the use of contraception

Reducing spread of disease in plants

Controlling where plants are moved to so that infected plants don’t come into contact with healthy ones, destroying infected plants, only using healthy sources of seeds and plants, crop rotation, polyculture (growing different plants in same area at the same time) chemical control (fungicides) and biological control ( control organism)


Stop you getting infections because it’s a dead or weakened pathogen injected.


Stop you getting infections because it’s a dead or weakened pathogen injected.

How do vaccines help against disease

White blood cell comes across dead/inactive pathogen allowing it to make antibodies specific to it. Memory cells remember this and stay in blood. Any time the live pathogen comes the memory cells quickly makes antibodies go destroy them before making you seriously ill. This time they make large amounts of the antibody very quickly. Preventing outbreaks of diseases

Pros of vaccines

Helped controls lots of diseases, saved lives around the world


Reduce blood pressure


Tubes that can open up narrowed down arteries

Coronary bypass surgery

Healthy vessel put in place to allow blood to go around the blocked vessel

Heart transplant

Whole heart replaced with donor heart


They don’t always work. Bad reaction (rare) to the vaccine. Expensive to make and to vaccinate lots of people.


Reduce pain


Treat bacterial infections. Kill bacteria in your body


Used for viral infections. Stop viruses from reproducing. Hard to make due to viruses living inside your. Ella

Cardiovascular disease

Affects heart and blood vessels

Too much cholesterol

Can cause fatty deposits to build up in arteries making them narrower and reduces blood flow. Sometimes these can break off and block blood flow. A blood clot can also form at the site and block blood flow. If this happens in coronary artery it stops heart muscles from getting oxygen —> heart attack. If stopped to brain —> stroke

How to reduce getting cardiovascular disease

Exercising regularly, losing weight, stopping smoking, healthy diet, reducing stress


Reduce risk of heart attack because they reduce amount of cholesterol in blood


Make blood clots less likely to form