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50 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Stored red blood cells of how long were shown to be associated with increased risk of sepsis and MODS

a. Over 14 days
2
Stored red blood cells of how long were shown to be associated with an inflammatory response in dogs

a. 21-28 days
3
What are two risk factors associated with negative prognosis in dogs with hemolysis

a. Increased patient age and pretransfusion lactate
4
What are two Proinflammatory cytokines linked with increased mortality in dogs with IMHA

a. Monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 and interleukin 18
5
Generally speaking was there a difference in the outcome in dogs that lived for 30 days after getting a transfusion that was under 14 days or older than 14 days

a. No difference
b. Exception in the hemolysis group though
6
What is one of the proposed mechanisms by which older blood may incite sepsis

a. Transfusion of older pRBC’s may activate endothelium by release of free hemoglobin or microparticles
7
Most cases of thrombi originate from which side of the heart

a. Left side
8
What is the reported survival rate for cats with ATE

a. Less than 50%
9
Previously reported poor prognostic indicators for cats with ATE include what

a. Hypothermia, affecting more than one limb, neurologic deficits (absence of motor function), hyperphosphatemia, bradycardia
10
What percentage of cats that were treated after initial presentation survived longer than 24 hours

a. 70% (the most common outcome at presentation was euthanasia however)
11
What percentage of cats that survived the first 24 hours lived a total of 7 days

a. 50%
12
Mortality was associated from cats not receiving what therapies

a. Aspirin, Plavix, or both
13
What negative prognostic indicator meant a cat was less likely to survive 7 days

a. Affecting more than one limb
14
Does seasonality play a role in ATE

a. No
15
Was presentation of CHF at the time of ATE correlated with outcome

a. No
16
What is the most common source for iron deficiency in dogs

a. Chronic blood loss in the GI tract (tumors, IBD, parasites, ulcers)
17
What are two storage forms of iron

a. Ferritin and hemosiderin
18
What transports iron

a. Transferrin and plasma carriers
19
Unlike in humans, blood donors were found to have what parameters with respect to iron storage and metabolism

a. Lower saturation and higher unsaturated iron binding capacity and total iron binding capacity
20
What are the most labile clotting factors in plasma

a. Factor 8 and vonWillebrand factor
21
Does storing of blood for 24 hours before collecting for plasma affect coagulation factors

a. No, not statistically significant but there were lower levels of X, vwf:Ag, and fibrinogen
22
How is a Coomb’s test and a Direct antiglobulin test different

a. Coomb’s test is an antiglobulin test that detects erythrocyte auto and alloantibodies whereas a direct antiglobulin test detects Ig, complement, or both (only DAT can identify the antibodies on RBC’s)
23
What is the hallmark reported in IMHA

a. Destruction of rBC induced by autoantibodies and complement
24
When trying to diagnose a patient with IMHA, what is the proposed sequence of testing once agglutination is discovered

a. Confirm with a DAT test as there are few false negatives (not affected by immunosuppressive drugs or transfusions) and is more specific than osmostic frailty- it is the most sensitive and specific tool for diagnosing IMHA
25
Acute hemolytic transfusion reactions occur most frequently to what antigens

a. DEA 1.1, 4, Dal
26
Which DEA is dominant to DEA 1.2

a. DEA 1.1
27
What is the proposed descriptor when typing a dog

a. How strong or weak a dog is for DEA 1 + or –
28
Venous oxygen content is proposed to be an indirect marker of what

a. Oxygen delivery to tissues
29
Which index most consistently determined blood oxygen and tissue oxygen delivery

a. Hemoglobin – not lactate (venous oxygen content mirrored this)
30
Leukopenia with marked neutrophilia in cats is associated with what

a. Increased mortality
31
Dogs that had a degenerative left shift were how much more likely to be euthanized

a. 2x
32
What percentage of feline neutrophils remain in the marginated pool

a. 70%
33
What infectious disease was associated with a 3 fold higher hazard of death or euthanasia compared to other cats

a. Felv
34
What breeds of cats have a lower risk of death or euthanasia in this study

a. Purebred cats
35
The magnitude (mature neutrophil to immature neutrophils ratio) was associated or not associated with outcome

a. Was associated
36
What immune mediated disease is the most common cause for relapsing fevers

a. IMPA
37
What breeds are predisposed to IMPA

a. Rottweilers, labs, golden retrievers, shelties, irish setters, cocker spaniels, American eskimos
38
What markers of inflammation have been studies with canine IMPA

a. CRP, IL-6, IL-8
39
Which marker was found to be the most sensitive and useful as a maker of synovial inflammation and clinical improvement

a. CRP
40
What cells secrete IL-6

a. WBC’s, fibroblasts, synovial cells
41
What does IL-8 attract

a. Neutrophils
42
What is the gold standard for diagnosing ATE in dogs and cats

a. Selective iodine contrast medium angiography
43
What marker was found to be sensitive and specific in dogs and cats when diagnosing ATE

a. Glucose concentration changes
44
What other marker was found to be positively correlated with ATE

a. D-dimers
45
In canine IMTP, increases in what index as found to precede platelet count improvements

a. Mean platelet volume
46
Human studies have demonstrated that what factors are lost after fresh frozen plasma has been stored for a year

a. Factor V and VIII
47
What in vitro test evaluates primary and secondary hemostasis and fibrinolytic activity

a. Thromboelastography (TEG)
48
The r time that is calculated by TEG represents what

a. Time for clot to form
49
What is the alpha angle calculated by TEG

a. Strengthening of the clot
50
The MA is a measure of what

a. Platelet function, ultimate clot strength