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22 Cards in this Set

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joint (articulation)

when two or more bones come together; connects skeleton and gives mobility

fibrous joints

bones joined by fibrous connective tissue, immovable


sutures of skull

cartilaginous joints

united by cartilage, limited movement. strength, flexibility, shock


pubic symphasis, sternocostal, intevertebral disks

synovial joints

articulating surfaces separated by fluid filled joint cavity, permits most movement


all limb joints

synovial joint: articular cartilage

lines ends of bones, hyaline cartilage

synovial joint: joint (synovial) cavity

free space

synovial joint: joint capsule

connective tissue surrounds bone, contains fluid

synovial joint: synovial fluid

lubricant

synovial joint: reinforcing ligament

give strength

Ball and socket

hip and shoulder, permits most motion, spherical head articulates with cup like socket

hinge

motion along single place, flexion and extension, elbow and interphalangeal joints

pivot

rounded end of one bone protrudes into sleeve or ring of another, only uniaxial movement allowed. atlas and dens, radius and ulna

Lever systems

gives mechanical advantage

1st class levers

seesaw; atlantoccipital joint (atlas and occipital bone)

2nd class levers

wheelbarrow; calf raises (metatarsalphalangeal joint)


weight is distributed, gives the best mechanical advantage

3rd class levers

tweezers/tennis racket; bicep curl


most in body are this class, gives us more control

shoulder joint

glenoid cavity of scapula and head of humerus


ball and socket joint


not very strong or deep, stable


joint stability maintained by rotator cuffs

Knee joint

relies on ligaments for strength

sprain

injury to ligament

strain

muscle pull

osteoarthritis

inflammation of bone joint, ends of bone wear away

rheumatoid arthritis

inflammatory autoimmune disease where inflammatory chemicals are released. body attacks joints, erosion of cartilage, thickening of joint surfaces